Monday, September 30, 2019

Lord of the Flies Response to Literature Essay

Every great society has strived and prospered due to the laws and principles the civilization has lived by. But when a society removes these principles that are laid out what could result? In The Lord of the Flies by William Golding, as a result of a terrible war a plane crashed landed, killing the pilots and leaving a small group of boys stranded on an island leaving the boys with no ascendancy. The groups of boys do well at the start when they establish an organized method to keep an ongoing signal fire going, problems soon arise as the kids begin to lose the liberation they had once practiced. As we scrutinize the Lord of The Flies and apply Freudians theory we can personify each of the three elements that make up his theory with the three main characters Jack, Ralph and Piggy that can also represent: the Id, the Ego and the Super Ego based on Freud’s Personality theory. The best well known psychoanalytic theory developed by Sigmund Freud, a Viennese physician, believed that the mind could be separated to three parts the Id, the Ego and the Super Ego. The Id is what we are born with it is the pleasure principle, representing what we desire at the moment in an unconscious state of mind without releasing the reality of the circumstances. In The Lord of the Flies the Id would symbolize Jack as he wants his ambitions met without thinking about their actual situation they are in. We can see this when Jack’s only interests is to go hunt and in his arbitrary choice he tells Samneric to leave their post to help kill the pig. This results in the fire burning out. The glorified Jack than returns to gasconade to Ralph of his accomplishment he tells him, â€Å"We got in a circle†¦Ã‚  We crept up†¦ The pig squealed† (Golding 69). He does not realize the significance of leaving the fire unattended; as his needs are met he could not see anything wrong with his actions. Although, in reality he has blown their chance of rescue as a boat had passed by but was unaware of their presence because the signal fire had gone out while Jack had told Samneric to help him. This impact Ralphs power as chief greatly as people than begin to doubt him and the group starts to split into two, but Ralph’s group leaves him as they go and eat with Jack’s group. Jack than gives the others a choice with his reasons being, â€Å"I gave you food and my hunters will protect you from the beast. Who will join my tribe? †(150). Jack only wants the power of being chief to satisfy himself and he try to do so by giving everyone a sense of hospitality when with his tribe, neglecting the fact the that Ralph has better intensions for the tribe than he does. This clarifies how Jack symbolizes the Id and can over powers the Ego, Ralph and the Super Ego Piggy because of how the Id is done in an unconscious state and only wants what it desires until it is pleased. Furthermore, Freud’s theory also consisted of the Ego which unlike the Id is aware of the reality and functions by the reality principle. The Ego can recognize on reality and is able to understand that behaviors have consequences. In the novel, Ralph takes the roll of the Ego as he is aware of the situation and organizes a plan to help try to keep the social rule that is necessary to live and survive. We see this when Ralph suggests new ideas, â€Å"‘If we have a signal going they’ll come and take us off. ’ ‘And another thing. ’ ‘We ought to have more rules. ’†(Golding 42). Ralph knew that they had to establish a form of trying to signal an outside source to have the chance of being rescued. Instead letting his desires take over he, strategized a plan where they would take turns watching the signal fire so it would not burn out. Even when the all the tribe left Ralph and he was left with Piggy and Samneric he knew that they had to warn them that you had to keep a fire going or they might never get rescued by ship. When he confronted Jack about it he told him, â€Å"Your only hope is keeping a signal fire going as long as there’s light to see. Then maybe a ship’ll notice the smoke and come and rescue us and take us home. † (178). Ralph’s intensions were only to help keep them safe and help them get rescued by coming up with a plan. This clearly shows how he is the Ego, when he makes decisions based on reality and thinks of the consequences when they are not followed. Although the Id over powers the Ego the Ego is more logical and would benefit more than the Id, as the Id only acts on pleasures. In addition, the Id and the Ego are very different in how they act the Ego and the Super Ego on the other hand works together. The Super Ego acts upon like an advisor for thoughts as well as actions that are carried by the Ego, which people also refer to as a conscience. The Super Ego can also act like the Id but when the demands aren’t met you have to suffer through guilt, but when are met it can make you feel pride. The Super Ego, in this case represents Piggy as he constantly advises Ralph in his actions that he is taking. For example, when they first meet at the beginning of the story Piggy tells him what to do with the conch, â€Å"We can use this to call the others. Have a meeting. They’ll come when they hear us. †(Golding 16). Piggy is the one that had the idea to try to rejoice everyone back together to meet and figure out a plan. He then lost most respect from everyone when they began to call him Piggy no one listen to him anymore even when he had good ideas to speak about. Piggy would also help Ralph realize what Jack would do and he wouldn’t, â€Å"I been in bed so much I done some thinking. I know about people. I know about me. And him. He can’t hurt you: but if you stand out of the way he’d hurt the next thing. And that’s me† (93). This displays Piggy’s effort in trying to help Ralph make decisions about Jack and what he is capable of. Without Piggy’s guidance as the Super Ego Ralph would not have been able to accomplish as much as he had done. Proving that Piggy served as Ralph’s Super Ego in judging Ralphs actions and plans. The Id, the Ego and the Super Ego all help to make the complex human personality. The Id, what makes us desire our pleasures unconsciously. The Ego helps us to adjust our Id to the situation to help us with a solution. And the Super Ego that acts like a censor for the actions of the Ego and thoughts. These three elements all resemble one of the main characters from The Lord of the Flies the Id is Jack who only wants his pleasures met, the Ego is Ralph who want to strategize a plan to help get rescued, And the Super Ego that resembles Piggy that helps to advise Ralph in his actions and plans. If these three characters acted together in the novel they would have lost the rules and laws from society like they did. They would have also been able to be rescued sooner than they did if the three characters would have worked together to make the society strong.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

History of Art Therapy

Art therapy is an effective form of self expression and is now considered to be a viable psychological tool in resolving inner conflicts, and   particularly helps   in the rehabilitation of emotionally disturbed or mentally ill patients.Through the arts, thoughts,   feelings, and needs are communicated. It must be known that the cornerstone of this mode of therapy is psychoanalysis, which will be explored in detail below.Art therapy has been supplementing the psychotherapeutic programs in the hospital settings.   It is now widely used in psychiatric hospitals and rehabilitation centers, and, is practiced by qualified art therapists or by psychologists. But when and how did it begin?To begin to understand the discipline of psychology, and the role psychoanalysis played in the practice of psychotherapy in general, it is noteworthy to mention that while psychoanalysis and psychology have a common background in nineteenth century science,   they were independent of one another for a number of years because of their differences in focus or interests.Psychology was looking at sensation, perception, memory and thinking – all elements and processes of consciousness.Whereas, psychoanalysis focused on the unconscious – motivation, emotion, conflict, neurotic symptoms, dreams and character traits. Following World War II, and perhaps, due to the demands of the time, the gap between the two disciplines began to diminish, and thanks to the opportunity offered   to psychologists to train in psychoanalysis   (Hall & Lindzey, 1978).While the arts as a form of human expression have been around for thousands of years, the merger of psychotherapy and arts therapy was realized in   the 1940's during the World War II.   Adrian Hill, a professional artist, coined the term â€Å"art therapy.†Ã‚   Hill   turned to his art for his own therapy while he was recovering in a   health sanitarium for tuberculosis patients.He later had the chance to i ntroduce painting to other patients. He found out that, not only did the patients found satisfaction in their work, but they were able to use it to reveal their repressed feelings   and   trauma of the war (Borowsky,1984).It was Edith Kramer who made observations on the importance of art for traumatized children. In the late 1930s, Kramer has worked with children of refugees from Nazi, Germany, and she has observed firsthand, how the children responded to stress.The artwork of these children revealed patterns of unresolved conflicts, regression and even aggression . It must be remembered that these children   have seen the horrible damage done by Hitler (Kramer, 1971).Kramer emphasized that art expression is an emotional journey toward self-discovery.   In her approach, art as a process is a catharsis. Recreating scenes and images from one's   past traumatic experience   helps bring the unconscious conflicts unto consciousness, and once catharsis is experienced, relief a nd positive change follows (Moreno, 1946).The concept of catharsis is associated with the early psychodynamic theories.   Catharsis is defined by the American Psychological Association (2007) as â€Å"the discharge of affects connected to traumatic events that had been repressed by bringing these events back into consciousness and reexperiencing them (p. 153). In this approach, painful experiences are released in therapy, by reliving the suppressed emotions.   Its curative effect is seen in various forms – religion, medicine, literature,   theater and the arts.Margaret Naumberg founded the Walden School in New York City in 1915. She believed that children best learn and develop when they are encouraged to express themselves through creative pursuits.She just knew that art is a window to the subconscious mind, and the therapist can best understand the difficulties one is going through by utilizing art as a tool of expression. For her, what is important is what one is co nsciously or unconsciously expressing through his artwork.Theories of Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud, and the other psychoanalytic thinkers of the time seemed to have been of great influence to Naumberg's approach to art therapy. The idea that art could be used to enhance diagnosis encouraged not only Naumberg but other early practitioners to study these images and their meanings. Diagnostic drawing and protocols were later developed that led art therapy onto its clinical direction.Jung believed in the healing power of imagination and creativity. He gave   importance to archetypal symbols, and   even encouraged his patients to fantasize and to explore (Feder, 1981).It must be recalled, archetypes are thought forms that create image that correspond to normal waking life, such as an image of a mother figure, that is then identified with the actual mother. Jung pointed out that feelings are explored through a variety of ways. Flow of images are represented in drawing, painting, sculpture , music and movement .Meanwhile, Freud provided the foundation for understanding psychoanalytic processes when he discussed much about symbols in dreams through his writings.Freud believed that   dreams are predominantly visual. However, much of the dream experience is lost in the interpretation of these images into words. He believed that patients could best draw an image, what they were unable to describe in writing (Feder).Naumberg came to realize through their theories that art expression is a technique that has the innate capacity to unavel repressed material, much like verbal therapy. She recognized that one's unconscious feelings and thoughts are best expressed in images than in words. Also, to further illustrate its parallelism to psychoanalysis, take for instance the created images in artworks.These are seen as external symbols of one's thoughts and a skilled therapist could best use these images to elicit feelings, much like the idea of transference.   Integrative tran sformation   or healing is made possible when this experience is made part of an art therapy session.The concept of transference is the cornerstone of the theory and practice of psychoanalysis which originated with Freud.   Simply, transference is reacting to a person in the present as though he or she were a person in one's past. Freud opined that during therapy sessions, patients were unconsciously â€Å"transferring† the feelings and attitudes they had toward early significant figures onto their   therapist.Since then, he knew that the â€Å"transferential† relationship between the patient and the therapist is actually the curative element in psychoanalysis.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Aims and Objectives for a Selected Business Essay Example for Free

Aims and Objectives for a Selected Business Essay ? †¢Describe what is meant by SMART objectives. An objective that follows SMART is more likely to succeed because it is clear (specific) so you know exactly what needs to be achieved. You can tell when it has been achieved (measurable) because you have a way to measure completion. A SMART objective is likely to happen because it is an event that is achievable. Before setting a SMART objective relevant factors such as resources and time were taken into account to ensure that it is realistic. Finally the timescale element provides a deadline which helps people focus on the tasks required to achieve the objective. The timescale element stops people postponing task completion. †¢Choose a business and describe its aim and 3 SMART objectives for how they can achieve their aim. oTesco want to be able to keep their carbon emissions down by making new buildings, they also want to make their business objects which have to follow this method Specific – this means that the business can make some specific objectives that the business wants to achieve, so if they want to hit a certain target of profit within a year they have to make a business plan or model to follow to achieve their goal. oMeasurable – this means that if a business wants to make some money, they can measure it in a certain amount of time, so if a business can make  £1000 pound in a month, then maybe next month they could forecast making an increase of that amount by studying the business activities throughout that month. Achievable – this means that a goal that the business can achieve with in a time period, so if a business wants to make  £1000 pound of profit in a month, then they could make it happen with the products that they might have to sell. oRealistic – this means that a business has to make realistic goals which that they can achieve, so things like making  £1,500 pounds in a week, this is a realistic goal because it could be made depending on the sales in the that week. oTime related – this means that each objective is set with in certain time, so it is like a dead line, if a business sets out to make and sell 5 computers in two weeks, then they now have time to create the product and then sell it within the time set. Aims and Objectives for a Selected Business. (2016, Dec 24).

Friday, September 27, 2019

Policymaking in US Government Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Policymaking in US Government - Essay Example Stephan, Citizen Democracy: Political Activists in a Cynical Age ) The agenda setting relates to whether showing disrespect to a national symbol is a criminal act or is an act envisaging free expression. As a national policy, National Flags are sacred symbols to be respected by all citizens both in word and spirit. Apparently, Gregory Lee ( Joey ) Johnson thought otherwise and utilized this form of expression to express his criticism for the American Administration. He was charged with 3 others for conspiring in, if not burning, the flag, and was sentenced to I year in jail and fine of $2000 by a jury in Dallas Country Criminal Court. Upon his appeal, the Texas Court of Appeals in Dallas rejected his plea that flag burning was an expression guaranteed by the US Constituition. However, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals held that the Texas Venerated Objects Laws had been utilized in order to stifle Johnson’s right to free expression. This set off a trail of similar bizarre incidents and in one case, the school of the Art Institute of Chicago invited guests to step on the flag to sign the Guest Book. This triggered off severe indictment and legislation in which the Chicago City Council banned placing flags in the floor. The Texas vs. Johnson case became a landmark one when the Supreme Court exonerated him of charges of desecration of the flag, adjudicating that it was a symbol of public protest and an Act of free Expression. Views regarding the question of Flag protection are divided among the Liberal and the Conservatives. While the Conservatives favor its protection the liberals think otherwise. The Flag Protection Amendment was sent several times for approval, but despite support, it failed to achieve the necessary supermajority for its enactment. In a free country, people have the right to do acts or say things, which are disagreeable to the majority of people, but it is a right Guaranteed to them by the

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Application of theory paper Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Application of theory paper - Assignment Example For this reason, a wide gap between practice and hypothesis continues to persist in the field of nursing. However, this is not always the case, in certain cases the difference in expected and observed result is due to human error or negligence on the part of professionals. No matter who postulates the theory, or to what background he or she belongs to, there are four basic concepts that are considered essential for every theory of nursing; they include the person, the environment, health, and nursing. Most of the theories attempt to explain the relationships that prevail between these notions and in doing so bring forth ideas that are novel and contributory towards the practice of nursing. Despite the importance of each of the four concepts with regards to nursing theory, the focal point of the nursing theories remains to be â€Å"the person". Further, nursing theory can be divided on the basis of generalizability principles. The categories of nursing theories on generalizability are Metatheory, Grand theory, Middle range theory, and Practice Theory. Metatheory can be considered as theory of theory or theories. It focuses on a specific phenomenon of abstract nature. Grand theory provides a conceptual framework, through which principles and concepts o f a discipline can be identified. Meanwhile, in Middle range theory, the area of focus is limited or too specific with respect to situation, and variables associated with it. Practice theory is usually applied to determine the goals that are to be achieved in result of a particular practice, and also the mode of attaining these goals. The standards of healthcare continue to transform every now and then as new technology evolves to replace the previous one. Similarly with the emergence of new health related challenges, the need to modify the process of nursing care continues to arise. This is not only important to ensure

A critical study of credit risk management in the first bank of Dissertation

A critical study of credit risk management in the first bank of Nigeria Plc - Dissertation Example Circumstances led to the situation in which the giant loss incurring banks due to subprime crisis have to solely depend on capital flow from Middle East, Chinese and investors from Singapore. Thus major nucleus of these losses has been related to credit risk. Thus the notion of the credit risk management is a grave concern in this world of complex financial milieu and it has become highly essential for the financial institutions to suppress loses arising from credit for sustained long run performance. The obnoxious cases of bank failures, acquisitions, consolidation have steered the focus of management of the financial institutions in restructuring operations, improving asset quality and building loan portfolios with credit risk management as the base structure (Yo & Yusoff, 2009, p.46). Influence of credit risk management on the banks Credit risk management has an overwhelming concern on the financial institutions especially that of a bank. The credit risks in simple language can be defined as the potential which the bank borrower or the counterparty will fail to meet its obligations with various agreed terms. The basic objectives of the credit risk management are directed towards the maximization of the risk adjustment of the bank with the maintenance of the credit risk exposure within the domain of various accepted parameters (which may vary from time to time). The banks basically require managing the credit risk intrinsic in the entire portfolio as well as the risks in the individual credits or the transactions. The banks should be also taking into account the relationships between the credit risk as well as that of the other risks. The effective management of the credit risk can be argued as a crucial component of a comprehensive approach towards risk management and are highly essential to the long-term success of any of the banking organization (Principles for the Management of Credit Risk, 2012, p.1). In the recent decades leading to financial crisis, th e banks have operating in an enhanced competitive market and as an involuntary mechanism being forced in taking more risks for seeking out higher margin actions. Securitization, commercial papers have created the platform where the banks can generate higher margin business by the process of converting the illiquid loans into marketable securities and thus lead to the release of capital for other investment opportunities. Empirical testing reveals that the process of securitization leads to the expansion of credit leading the banks to hold riskier assets (Casu et al, 2010, p.3). From the perspective of the Basel Accord II , securitization exposures the banks have to abide by some norms like that of proper documentation of the objectives, summary of the bank’s policies for securitization and whether there is limitations in the application of sophisticated credit risk management with the securitization method. The credit risk management can be successfully implemented if the ban ks adapt refined techniques for minimizing the risk of the expected losses (Securitization of Credit Exposures: Important Tool of Credit Risk Management under Basel Accord II, 2006, p.598). Technology enhancing the process of credit risk management One of the most important parts in the credit risk management is that of quantifying the risks and it is a very crucial part in the risk management process. From

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Geology of Brazil Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Geology of Brazil - Essay Example The six major groups that constitute the Brazilian population are the Portuguese who colonized Brazil in the 16th century, Africans brought to Brazil as slaves, European, Middle-Eastern, and Japanese and other Asian immigrant groups who settled in Brazil since the mid-19th century. Further, the indigenous people of Tupi and Guarani language stock. â€Å"Although the major European ethnic stock of Brazil was originally Portuguese, subsequent waves of immigration contributed to a diverse ethnic and cultural heritage† (BWHA 2011). Thesis Statement: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the geology of Brazil in order to gain an appreciation of the land, history and dynamics of the home country. The Geology of Brazil Brazil is located within the South American Platform with its basement consisting of a highly complex geologic evolution beginning from the Archaean period. The region of Brazil had become completely consolidated â€Å"between the Proterozoic Superior period and the beginning of the Palaeozoic period, with the closing in the Brazilian cycle† (Machado, 2011). ... Brazil Geology: Crystalline Shields and Sedimentary Basins (Machado, 2011)       Crystalline shields    Sedimentary basins    The Crystalline shields and the sedimentary basins of Brazil are clearly demarcated above (Fig.1). The shield of Guyana extends to the north of the basin of Amazonas; â€Å"the shield of the Brazil-central, or Guapore extends to the interior of Brazil and south of that basin, while the Atlantic shield is exposed in the oriental portion reaching the Atlantic border† (Machado, 2011). These shields are exposed in over half the area of Brazil. On that platform in Brazil were developoed three extensive basins with sineclisis character: Amazonas, Paraiba and Parana, which developed by filling spatially with sedimentary and volcanic coverings during stable conditions of ortho-platform originating from Ordovician-Silurian. Additionally, several other smaller basins including coastal basins and other sedimentary areas, occur exposed on the platform. The Carajas region in the Amazon belt of Brazil reveals a number of important features regarding the reactivation of Archaean basement terrains. A general increase in temperature is linked to deformation through time that is consistent with progressive exhumation of the crust. Similar embrittlement sequences are recognized in many other long-lived basement shear zones. Secondly, the regional basement fabrics are steeplyh dipping and trending east to west. Those deformations that followed are wrench-dominated events probably because the foliation orientation favours strike-slip, as opposed to dip-slip reactivation. Thirdly, the location of the younger Cover Assemblage rocks is structurally controlled by strike-slip fault zones. On the other hand, however, faulting entirely post-dates the deposition and does

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

ECDIS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

ECDIS - Essay Example Data supply is still a weak point of ECDIS at present. The hydrographical services are public authorities, who have now to switch from production of paper nautical charts to digital ECDIS data. Raster data is provided by official sources and fills the gaps in ECDIS data. The scanned paper charts cannot provide any real alternative to ECDIS data. Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) has been in vogue in shipping industry for over two decades now. ECDIS, however, can have a much wider application than in shipping, because electronic display and information can be used in aviation charts, street maps, railway maps, etc. In all these and other likewise segments of transport and communication, electronic display and information can be presented on a computer using the same methodology. However it is in shipping that the system is widely used and we shall restrict our discussion to the electronic nautical charts.Moreover ECDIS was initially developed for shipping, and it is in that industry that its use is wide-spread and likely to increase manifold in the future.. Electronic chart presentation is only one aspect of ECDIS. ECDIS is also an information system. ... ECDIS is also an information system. As an information system, ECDIS enables the user to access additional information on the items displayed in the graphics presentation; for instance, about a lighthouse. This may be marked on the chart by a tower symbol. The system can give further information on this object, for example, about its appearance, structure, and its current status, that is, for instance, it used to be operational once, but is no longer so, and is now preserved as a monument. The data may enable one to access, if required, further data about a detailed history of the lighthouse and view a digitalised photo of this object. The quantum and quality of the information available on the individual objects depends on how up-to-date, accurate and well maintained the data base is, not on the ECDIS itself. ECDIS stores these various details in a geographic-object oriented data base, so that ECDIS can be said to belong to the group of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The parts of ECDIS computer For the user, who is the navigator, ECDIS is only one item of equipment among many on the bridge of a modern ship. Operating the ECDIS is not the main duty of a ship's officer. Rather, the system replaces the conventional chart table and is intended to make all types of work traditionally connected with the paper nautical chart easier, more precise and faster. These include route planning, entry of observations, instructions and notes, position determination and updating charts with the aid of the Notices to Mariners (NtM). ECDIS represents an item of equipment consisting of hardware, software and the data. The hardware of the ECDIS is a computer with graphics capability, a high performance PC or a graphics workstation installed in a console linked with

Monday, September 23, 2019

Identify a research topic in your area of expertise( eg, warming of Essay

Identify a research topic in your area of expertise( eg, warming of neonates) and identify a middle range theory that would be applicable to support the research topic in your specialty area - Essay Example However, comfort is idiosyncratic and best identified by the patient (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). Kolcaba’s comfort theory would assist in this research by identifying the comfort desires, measures, health seeking patient conduct, comfort, intervening variables and institutional integrity (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). This theory acknowledges that the comfort needs of patients emanate from stressful health care conditions. Therefore, this theory would also guide in designing measures to satisfy the comfort needs (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). This would be achieved through patient factors that influence the discernment of comfort identified by the theory such as the age, attitude, past experience, support system, emotional state and finances. Additionally, the theory of comfort acknowledges that the comfort is an experience offered in the environmental, psychospiritual, sociocultural and physical contexts (Peterson & Bredow, 2009). The research would identify these contexts of life through applying this theory’s taxonomic structure. Additionally, this theory would assist in the research by defining the three types of comfort that can be offered to patients. The theory of comfort identifies such as relief, ease and

Saturday, September 21, 2019

William Shakespeare and His Works Essay Example for Free

William Shakespeare and His Works Essay William Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564 in the home of John Shakespeare and Mary Arden at Stratford-on-Avon. He was educated at the King Edward IV Grammar School in Stratford, where he learned Latin and a little Greek and read the Roman dramatists. At eighteen, he married Anne Hathaway, a woman seven or eight years his senior. Together they raised Susanna, who was born in 1583, and the twins Judith and Hamnet (who died in boyhood), born in 1585. He was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the worlds pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called Englands national poet and the Bard of Avon. Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlains Men, later known as the Kings Men. In 1594, Shakespeare joined the Lord Chamberlains company of actors, the most popular of the companies acting at Court. The Globe, which became the most famous theater of its time. With his share of the income from the Globe, Shakespeare was able to purchase New Place, his home in Stratford. Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were mainly comedies and histories, genres he raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the end of the 16th century. He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. In 1623, John Heminges and Henry Condell, two friends and fellow actors of Shakespeare, published the First Folio, a collected edition of his dramatic works that included all but two of the plays now recognised as Shakespeares. Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but his reputation did not rise to its present heights until the 19th century. The Romantics, in particular, acclaimed Shakespeares genius, and the Victorians worshipped Shakespeare. In the 20th century, his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain highly popular today and are constantly studied, performed, and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world. In his poems and plays, Shakespeare invented thousands of words, often combining or contorting Latin, French and native roots. His impressive expansion of the English language, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, includes such words as: arch-villain, birthplace, bloodsucking, courtship, dewdrop, downstairs, fanged, heartsore, hunchbacked, leapfrog, misquote, pageantry, radiance, schoolboy, stillborn, watchdog, and zany. His extant works, including some collaborations, consist of about 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses. Only eighteen of Shakespeares plays were published separately in quarto editions during his lifetime. He retired to Stratford around 1613 at age 49, where he died three years later. Superstitions during Shakespearean time Superstitions are irrational beliefs but a handful of them are actually still evident in our modern world. The superstitions that originated during the Elizabethan era were based on various beliefs and traditions. The historians opine that many of the traditional English customs were based on the myths and superstitions that date back to the Dark Ages. Ignorance and fear of the unknown, combined with a false conception of death resulted in many superstitions during the Elizabethan era. Shakespeare had made use of the superstitions regarding spirits and witchcraft that prevailed in the Elizabethan society in his plays Macbeth and Hamlet. Books by Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet The play begins with a large fight between the Capulet’s and the Montague’s, two prestigious families in Verona, Italy. Meanwhile, Romeo and Benvolio are accidentally invited to their enemy’s party. At the party, Romeo locks eyes with a young woman named Juliet. They instantly fall in love, but they do not realize that their families are mortal enemies. When they realize each other’s identities, they are devastated, Romeo sneaks into Juliet’s yard after the party and proclaims his love for her. She returns his sentiments and the two decide to marry. The next day, Romeo and Juliet are married Juliet’s mother, informs Juliet that she will marry a man named Paris in a few days. Juliet asks Friar Lawrence for advice. Friar Lawrence gives Juliet a potion which will make her appear dead and tells her to take it the night before the wedding. Juliet drinks the potion and everybody assumes that she is dead. Romeo assumes that his wife is dead. He rushes to Juliet’s tomb and, in deep grief, drinks a vial of poison. later, Juliet wakes to find Romeo dead and kills herself due to grief. Once the families discover what happened, they gather sufficient self-knowledge to correct their. Macbeth It is considered one of Shakespeare’s darkest and most powerful tragedies. Set in Scotland when its protagonist, the Scottish lord Macbeth, chooses evil as the way to fulfill his ambition for power. The play is believed to have been written between 1603 and 1607, Macbeth receives a prophecy from a trio of witches that one day he will become King of Scotland. Consumed by ambition and spurred to action by his wife, Macbeth murders King Duncan and takes the throne for himself. He is then forced to commit more and more murders to protect himself from enmity and suspicion. The bloodbath swiftly takes Macbeth and Lady Macbeth into the realms of arrogance, madness, and death. Othello Believed to have been written in approximately 1603, and based on the Italian short story Un Capuano Moro (A Moorish Captain) by Cinthio. The work revolves around four central characters: Othello, a Moorish general in the Venetian army; his wife, Desdemona; his lieutenant, Cassio; and his trusted ensign, Iago. Because of its varied and current themes of racism, love, jealousy, and betrayal, Othello is still often performed in professional and community theatres and has been the basis for numerous operatic, film, and literary adaptations. The Tempest Believed to have been written in 1610–11. The Tempest attained popularity only after the Restoration. It is set on a remote island, where Prospero, the rightful Duke of Milan, plots to restore his daughter Miranda He conjures up a storm, the eponymous tempest, to lure his usurping brother Antonio and the complicit King Alonso of Naples to the island. There, his machinations bring about the marriage of Miranda to Alonsos son, Ferdinand. The story draws heavily on the tradition of the romance, and it was influenced by tragicomedy and the courtly masque. It differs from Shakespeares other plays in its observation of a stricter, more organized neoclassical style. Twelfth Night Twelfth Night or, what you will is a comedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written around 1601–02 for the close of the Christmas season. The play expanded on the musical interludes and riotous disorder expected of the occasion Much Ado about Nothing Much Ado About Nothing is a comedic play by William Shakespeare thought to have been written in 1598 and 1599, as Shakespeare was approaching the middle of his Much Ado About Nothing chronicles two pairs of lovers: Benedick and Beatrice (the main couple), and Claudio and Hero (the secondary couple). Benedick and Beatrice are engaged in a very merry war; they are both very witty and proclaim their disdain of love. In contrast, Claudio and Hero are sweet young people who are rendered practically speechless by their love for one another career. The courtship between the wittier, wiser lovers Benedict and Beatrice is what makes Much Ado about Nothing so memorable. Benedick and Beatrice argue with delightful wit, and Shakespeare develops their journey from antagonism to sincere love and affection with a rich sense of humor and compassion. Benedick and Beatrice are tricked into confessing their love for each other. Dogberry, a Constable who is a master of malapropisms, discovers the evil trickery of the villain, Don John. In the end, Don John runs away and everyone else joins in a dance celebrating the marriages of the two couples. As You Like It It is a pastoral comedy by William Shakespeare believed to have been written in 1599 or early 1600 . The play features one of Shakespeares most famous and oft-quoted speeches The play remains a favorite among audiences and has been adapted for radio, film, and musical theatre. As You Like It follows its heroine Rosalind as she flees persecution in her uncles court, accompanied by her cousin Celia and Touchstone the court jester, to find safety and eventually, love, in the Forest of Arden. Julius Caesar Julius Caesar is a tragedy believed to have been written in 1599. It portrays the conspiracy against the Roman dictator Julius Caesar, his assassination and the defeat of the conspirators at the Battle of Philippi. It is one of several plays written by Shakespeare based on true events from Roman  history,. Although the title is Julius Caesar, Julius Caesar is not the most visible character in its action; and is killed at the beginning. The central psychological drama is Marcus Brutus’s struggle between the conflicting demands of honor, patriotism, and friendship. The Comedy of Errors The Comedy of Errors is one of William Shakespeares earliest plays. It is his shortest and one of his most farcical comedies, with a major part of the humor coming from slapstick and mistaken identity. The Comedy of Errors tells the story of two sets of identical twins that were accidentally separated at birth. Antipholus of Syracuse and his servant, Dromio of Syracuse, arrive in Ephesus, which turns out to be the home of the twin brothers, When the Syracusans encounter the friends and families of their twins, a series of wild mishaps based on mistaken identities lead to wrongful beatings, a near-seduction, the arrest of Antipholus of Ephesus, and false accusations of infidelity, theft, madness, and demonic possession.

Friday, September 20, 2019

The India-Pakistan Relationship

The India-Pakistan Relationship India Pakistan relationship has been marred with conflict ever since their independence and both the nations have been involved in three major wars till date in1947-48, 1965 and 1971. In 1998, both countries conducted nuclear tests to enter the nuclear powered nations club. This led a few number of experts to profess that the nuclear deterrence would lead to stabilization of conflict in the sub continent and result in establishment of peace. This kind of deterrence was witnessed by the world for the second time, the first being nuclear deterrence between the cold war foes of NATO and Warsaw Pact countries and to be more specific the US and USSR. Experts from the field of international relations who applied the theories developed in the cold war era Europe to the South Asian rivalry professed that the chances of conventional conflict using regular forces are a thing of the past in case of these two nations. This theory was further reinforced by the Kargil war and the standoff subsequ ent to the attack on Indian Parliament in 2001. In 1999 Pakistan occupied a large number of posts after crossing the LOC in the Kargil sector, threatening the crucial Srinagar Leh highway using regular troops in the guise of Mujahids. The Indian Army reacted to the situation by regrouping and launching Operation Vijay, and started to recapture the posts by forcibly removing Pakistani troops occupying the posts. This operation was also accompanied by a full scale mobilisation of its military forces by India; however despite the tough posturing by India the war remain limited to the Kargil sector. This was primarily because of tremendous pressure mounted by the international community, especially the US fearing that this conflict may escalate to a nuclear plain. In 2001 the same massive mobilisation was witnessed by both the countries when they had their forces deployed against each other ready for combat. This time in December 2001 following the attack on the Indian parliament by a group of militants trained in Pakistan. The situation reached a flash point when on 14 May 2002, when another terrorist attack on the Indian Army camp in Kaluchak threatened to start a war between the two nuclear neighbours. In this instance also, as seen in Operation Vijay, India despite posturing did not take any punitive offensive action against Pakistan despite having all its forces in a completely mobilized state. The above incidents did reflect a situation where in Pakistan had effectively used the nuclear deterrence to attain strategic parity with India negating a conventional disadvantage and thus supposedly giving it immunity to conduct sub conventional operations without the fear of any retribution. Thus India to face major challenges in conducting sub conventional spectrum in Kashmir, which Pakistan initiated after covertly attaining the nuclear technology in the late 1980s. Its conventional strength negated, and with no option to retaliate India find itself in a position where it will have to work its way around this nuclear parity, so as to be able to stifle the Pakistan supported terrorism. Therefore, we need to carefully study the nuclear capability and doctrine of Pakistan in conjunction with the theories of nuclear deterrence, to work out ways for India to exploit its massive conventional superiority by utilizing it to escalate the conflict spectrum, such that it remains under the level of Total War. METHODOLOGY STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM To analyze nuclear deterrence in India Pakistan relations. Explore the possibility of use of conventional forces by India to counter the sub conventional threat faced from Pakistan, while avoiding a nuclear war. HYPOTHESIS Having attained nuclear capability Pakistan has been acting with a presumption that Indias conventional superiority has been totally negated by the nuclear symmetry and has encouraged the Pakistani military elite to intensify the ongoing Proxy War in Jammu and Kashmir. This has had catastrophic consequences for India, which though enjoying substantial conventional superiority, is unable to use it to counter Pakistans sub conventional threat. It is therefore important to study the interaction between conventional and nuclear deterrence on the India Pakistan relations and generate credible conventional responses to the sub conventional conflict India finds itself embroiled in Jammu and Kashmir. JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY Indian armed forces along with paramilitary forces are deeply committed in counterinsurgency operations in Jammu Kashmir, which is fallout of the sub conventional operations by Pakistan in the state. This has been possible due to the fact, that Pakistan has been able to achieve strategic parity with India by attaining nuclear capability which affords it certain degree of immunity from direct retaliation through conventional means by Indian forces. Off late, the thought process in higher echelons of Indian leadership has been to ascertain What should be Indias response, should Pakistan continue with its sub conventional campaign? While a majority of international relation theorists who studied the nuclear deterrence during the cold war, suggest that the likelihood of a conventional conflict between two nuclear armed rivals are slim, as it leads to a situation of mutually assured destruction (MAD). However, it would be injudicious to apply these theories in their entirety in the Indo Pak context, as the conditions and realties that exist in South Asia are considerably different than that of the cold war. Thus there exists a window for vertical escalation of the ongoing sub conventional engagement which is below the nuclear threshold. This would however depend on Pakistans response to a conventional threat, as it the weaker party. Thus any suggested response for India should also carefully consider the Pakistani nuclear capability and doctrine as well, so as to work out practical options for use of conventional military and allow India to effectively counter its asymmetric threat. This study is thus aimed at ascertaining the possibility of a conventional war between India and Pakistan without it getting escalated to a total war. SCOPE The paper concentrates on analysing the effect of nuclear deterrence on India and Pakistan relations, applicability of various international relation theories on this relationship and possibility of use of conventional forces by India as counter to proxy war waged by Pakistan while staying below the nuclear threshold. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION The methodology employed in this investigation to gather information and data was as follows: Scanning of literature on nuclear capability and doctrines of India and Pakistan. Study of various International Relation theories worked out to explain the superpower relations during the cold war. Scanning various articles and books by authors concerning the nuclear situation in South Asia. A bibliography of sources studied and referred has been appended at the end of the text. ORGANISATION OF THE DISSERTATION (CHAPTERISATION) The dissertation has been carried out in the following parts:- Chapter I Introduction. The background, introduction to the subject and methodology will be covered in this chapter. Chapter II Deterrence In Context Of India Pakistan Relations. This chapter will cover the theoretical aspects of deterrence and its applicability in the context of India Pakistan relationship. Chapter III Nuclear Peace Hypothesis : Manifestation in India Pakistan Relations. This chapter will study the hypothesis of nuclear peace as propounded by academic experts of international relations and analyse the India Pakistan relations in its light. Chapter IV Pakistans Nuclear Weapons Capability And Command Control Setup. This chapter deals with the nuclear weapons capability that Pakistan possesses, to include its weapon system and delivery platforms, as well as the nuclear command and control setup. Chapter V Nuclear Weapon Use by Pakistan : Probability and Scenarios. This chapter will concentrate on the probability of nuclear weapon use by Pakistan and the various scenarios in which they are likely to be used. Chapter VI Options Available To India For Use Of Conventional Forces. This chapter will study the options available with India to use conventional force to deter Pakistan from undertaking sub conventional operations in Kashmir. Chapter VII Conclusion. The conclusion of the paper and appropriate recommendations will be made in this chapter. CHAPTER II DETERRENCE IN CONTEXT OF INDIA PAKISTAN RELATIONS We will not prematurely or unnecessarily risk the costs of worldwide nuclear war in which even the fruits of victory would be ashes in our mouth. John F. Kennedy The word deterrence comes from the latin verb deterree, which means to frighten. It is an attempt to influence how and what an enemy thinks and does  [1]  . Thus deterrence is a state of mind that prevents a deterree from acting in a way a deterror considers harmful. In a simplistic form, deterrence is a crucial factor in the mind of someone trying to decide the benefits of executing a crime versus the likelihood and consequences of getting caught  [2]  . The success or failure of deterrence also depends upon how the message is conveyed by the deterror to the deterree. In order to elucidate this aspect, the situation before the two Gulf Wars needs to be considered and understood which highlights the importance of how the deterrence message is framed and understood, as well as how disastrous it can be to fail to understand the thinking of the other side. Before Saddam Hussain invaded Kuwait in August 1990, the US diplomatic and political positioning was such that it failed to give a clear message that it would react strongly to any Iraqi invasion. Hence failure to clearly convey deterrence between the sides, ultimately lead to the war. The example brings into play the lesser known twin of deterrence which is compellance  [3]  . Deterrence can also be defined as the prevention of action for fear of the consequences, brought about by the existence of a credible threat of unacceptable counteraction. Thus, it is designed to prevent something. Compellance on the other hand involves threat of consequences designed to cause the other party to reverse or to stop carrying out some unwanted action or activity, which has already occurred, the result is war. Similar analysis could be applied to the Cuban Missile Crisis, where initial misunderstandings lead to the failure of both deterrence and compellance. One could also use the word coercion to cover both deterrence and compellance. Another associated question  [4]  with the concept of deterrence which arises is How much is enough? Since deterrence is essentially a psychological phenomenon, it is not surprising that how much punishment is sufficient to deter another state, which has always been a controversial and an elastic standard. Types of Military Deterrence Military deterrence are of two kinds defensive (conventional) and by punitive (nuclear)  [5]  . Effective deterrence is a matter of convincing an opponent that certain harm to him will accompany the act one wishes to deter. Thus it amounts to the imposition of a calculus of risk and value on an opponent, such that the value of the act sought to be deterred does not exceed the risk, which is an assessment of the likelihood and the extent of harm. For deterrence to succeed, the enemy has to be persuaded that the deterror has the capacity to act, in a manner that it inflicts greater cost than the advantages to be won by attaining the objective, and that it would actually undertake the act if it is required to. However if the deterror takes the threat of retaliation into account, he can no longer deter all objectionable acts. Thus making it obligatory on the deterror to distinguish between those objectives of indispensable value such as national survival, and objects of relatively l ess importance/value. While in the overall gambit of geopolitics there are large number of instruments of state power which work to deter an adversary, to include but not limited to, political, economic, diplomatic, military power. However in purely military terms deterrence is of two types:- Conventional Deterrence. This is the deterrence accrued by a nation owing to it possessing a higher military strength, which would mean quality and quantity of hardware as well as trained military force. This spectrum of military power will include land, air and naval forces. This type of deterrence can be easily achieved by the nation which has a larger resource base both in terms of population as well as economic capital. Therefore, in a bilateral conflict the country which is larger in size tends to be the nation which generally has more deterrent potential (militarily), as it is assumed that it can not only maintain a larger force but would also be able to sustain the conflict much longer. Nuclear Deterrence. This is the deterrence accrued by a nation when it possesses a nuclear weapon, and is studied separately because nuclear weapon exchange is likely to have such substantial effect to both the parties that it would force any nation irrespective of its size to ponder on the effects of such an engagement, hence forcing the dilemma of cost-benefit ratio in the minds of leaders of both the sides. Thus a weaker/smaller nation which faces a superior nation always opts for a nuclear deterrence, as was evident after the end of the Second World War, wherein the United States laid emphasis on developing its nuclear arsenal to counter the numerical superiority of the erstwhile USSR. Nuclear deterrence theory consists of six key elements  [6]  , which have to be satisfied to be of any effect, these are:- The assumption of a very severe conflict. The assumption of rationality. The concept of retaliatory threat. The concept of unacceptable damage. The notion of credibility. The notion of deterrence stability. Conventional Deterrence in Relation of India Pakistan India as a nation possesses all ingredients to effectively deter Pakistan in as far as conventional deterrence is concerned. However, this was not always the case, as after independence being of roughly comparable size both in economic and military strengths, India had limited deterrent capability. Although India did enjoy numerical superiority in its armed forces it was hardly sufficient to act as a deterrent for its new neighbour, coupled with the fact that Pakistani military leadership wrongly hypothesised that there soldier were better than their Indian counterparts and any advantage accrued due to numerical superiority was more than compensated. Their belief of superiority was further fortified when as part of its alliance with the US they received technologically advanced weaponry hence achieving qualitative edge over India. This myth carried by the Pakistani elite for a considerable period of time, manifested in the various wars which the two nations have since fought. However this misconception of its superior relative strength came crashing on the Pakistani leadership in 1971 when facing the full potential of the Indian military, it was not only defeated convincingly but also lead to it being bifurcated. Post 1971 there was no conventional conflict as India successfully deterred Pakistan, which till then was always the aggressor. This deterrence that India possessed was for the following reason:- Conventional superiority of the Indian military infrastructure both as quantitatively well as qualitatively. Economic superiority, considering the size of Indian economy vis-à  -vis that of Pakistan. Diplomatic strength wherein India had a larger clout in the comity of nations including Islamic states, being considered a peace loving nation which is actively involved in various international forums. Effectiveness of Conventional Deterrence Against Pakistan India Pakistan relationship is going through a period during which no conventional conflict has occurred between them for a long time. However, this period does not signify that of peace as India has been facing a heightened level of sub conventional threat in Kashmir from Pakistan. So the question which arises is that has India been able to achieve effective deterrence against Pakistan or not? The extent and severity of the sub conventional threat that India faced in Kashmir is clearly brought out by the figure 1. FIGURE 1 : FATALITY LEVELS IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR  [7]   The details given above make it clearly evident that though India may have deterred a conventional conflict but the same may not hold true for the sub conventional spectrum. This can be attributed to the attainment of nuclear weapons capability by Pakistan as the threat of conventional conflict reduced Pakistan adopted an aggressive policy of sub conventional operations against India  [8]  . Thus providing a political lever to the Pakistani ruling class to be exploited in international as well as national arena, while reducing the efficacy of Indian Army by embroiling it in asymmetric warfare leading to a classical case of Stability Instability Paradox, which is defined as under:- To the extent that the military balance is stable at the level of all out nuclear war, it will become less stable at lower levels of violence  [9]  . Another expert elaborates; nuclear weapons can generate risk taking because they presumably provide an insurance policy against escalation  [10]  . 23. Hence it is pertinent to note that while India enjoys substantial conventional deterrence the same seems to be ineffective when faced with a nuclear adversary which is undertaking a sub conventional operation against it. Therefore, a thorough analysis would be necessary to ascertain whether India can utilize its conventional superiority and come out of the stability-instability logjam, thus leading to the end of strife in Kashmir. The only example which can be studied to derive suitable future courses of action would be the nuclear deterrence between the NATO and the Warsaw pact countries during the cold war. This nuclear relationship was studied extensively and a number of international relation theories formalized to explain the interaction between the two parties. The most prominent of these hypotheses, forwarded by international relations experts, in as far as conflict involving nuclear states are concerned is the Nuclear Peace Hypothesis which may shed some light on the stat us of the current relations between India and Pakistan. However the theories evolved in a different set of situations may not be fully applicable to India Pakistan relations and thus require suitable modifications to be relevant. And is it possible, at least theoretically, for India to escalate the conflict to conventional level. CHAPTER III NUCLEAR PEACE HYPOTHESIS : MANIFESTATION IN INDIA PAKISTAN RELATIONS No explanation for the current strategic situation is satisfactory without a definition of the nuclear situation; no definition of the nuclear situation is possible without knowledge of the laws that rule deterrence. Andre Beaufre Do nuclear weapons reduce the probability of war? From the starting days of the nuclear weapon development, proponents of nuclear deterrence argued that these weapons have the capacity to reduce the probability of conventional war resulting in what may be called as the Nuclear Peace. Studying the dynamics of the Cold War, some scholars have argued that this is indeed what happened. Despite large number of crises and several proxy wars, the US and USSR avoided a direct military confrontation as both feared an escalation to a nuclear plain. They suggest that unlike conventional deterrence, nuclear deterrence is extremely robust because even irrational or unintelligent leaders are likely to recognize the exceedingly high cost of nuclear war. Therefore, proponents of nuclear deterrence claim with a high degree of confidence that the probability of major war among states having nuclear weapons approaches zero. Although Cold War was fierce but it never did escalate to World War III. Indeed, some experts argue that Cold War can be thought of as the Long Peace. And despite the collapse of Eastern Block and the end of Cold War the relative period of peace continues. However, other forms of warfare (sub conventional, asymmetric warfare, etc.) have been seen in various parts of the world but no major war has broken out. So what is responsible for the absence of major wars between great powers after WWII? The three main schools of international relations (IR) theorists have each offered answers to this question  [11]  . Neo-Liberalism. As per Neo-liberals democracy, trade and international organizations are the key causes of peace. Constructivism. While constructivists view democracy, trade, and international organizations as important factors, argue that the main facilitator of the Long Peace are the evolving norms and the social construction of identity. Neo-realism. They attribute peace during the Cold War to bipolarity and nuclear deterrence. Robert Rauchhaus has quantitatively evaluated the nuclear peace hypothesis and his findings indicate that the impact of nuclear weapons is more complicated than is conventionally appreciated  [12]  . He further theorizes that when nuclear asymmetry exists between two states, a greater chance of military disputes and war exists. In contrast, when there is symmetry and both states possess nuclear weapons, then the odds of war drop drastically. When combined, these findings provide support for the existence of the stability instability paradox. Evidence suggests that while nuclear weapons promote strategic stability, they simultaneously allow for more risk-taking in lower intensity disputes. He thus gives out the following hypotheses:- Hypothesis 1. The probability of major war between two states will decrease if both states possess nuclear weapons  [13]  . Hypothesis 2. The probability of crisis initiation and limited uses of force between two states will increase when both states possess nuclear weapons  [14]  . Hypothesis 3. The probability of major war between two states will decrease or remain constant if one state possesses nuclear weapons  [15]  . Hypothesis 4. The probability of lower level conflicts will decrease or remain the same if one state possesses nuclear weapons  [16]  . Applicability of Nuclear Peace Hypothesis in India Pakistan Relations Having studied the various nuclear peace hypotheses, it will be clear that the first two would be applicable in the context of India Pakistan relations, as both countries are nuclear states. These hypotheses do hold considerably well, when we see them in relation to India Pakistan conflict, the same has been discussed in subsequent sub paragraphs:- Hypothesis 1. The probability of major war between two states will decrease if both states possess nuclear weapons  [17]  . Relations between India and Pakistan have repeatedly reached flashpoints wherein they were dangerously close to an all out war ( Kargil 1999, Op Parakaram 2001) but they somehow manged to avoid escalating the conflict into an open war, hence maintaining strategic peace. This hypothesis may also apply to the pre 1998 era where in both the nations had acquired nuclear capability but had still not come out in open. India although having conducted its first nuclear test in 1974 is said to have acquired operational capability only in early 1980s, while Pakistan is said to have attained the capability somewhere between 1986 and 1990. Hypothesis 2. The probability of crisis initiation and limited uses of force between two states will increase when both states possess nuclear weapons  [18]  . If we study the trend of sub conventional operations by Pakistan in Kashmir it would be clearly evident that the same was initiated by Pakistan on covertly acquiring the nuclear capability during the period mentioned  [19]  and then again given a fresh impetus after the 1998 nuclear tests. Thus it may be theorised, that Pakistan has used nuclear deterrence to negate Indias conventional superiority, while engaging in a sub conventional conflict. This hypothesis is also called the Stability Instabilty Paradox which was first discussed in detail by Mr Snyder in an essay in 1965. The situation is such that terrorism has become the foremost issue, which divides India and Pakistan  [20]  . And while a cursory study of the above hypotheses may lead one to conclude that the probability of fighting a conventional war is bleak, it must be understood that though the hypothesis says that a major war is unlikely between India Pakistan, a major war is defined as when one of the nation wants to completely subject the other to its will  [21]  . This is in contrast the thinking of the present military leadership, which misunderstands it with any conflict in which conventional forces are used. Thus as per the hypothesis a repeat of 1971 war may be unfeasible, but a repeat of 1965 may be a possibility, till the time the aims of the conflict are limited and both the parties are clearly aware of the same. This does have a historical example, the Sino-Soviet dispute of 1968, where both the sides had nuclear capability but since the aims of the war were limited neither parties used a nuclear weapon even when faced with an adverse outcome. Therefore there is a case for India to utilise its conventional forces, to counter the Pakistan initiated proxy war, by initiating a punitive limited objective war with Pakistan, with the sole aim of deterring it from continuance of the sub conventional war in Kashmir. Applicability of Cold War International Theories in South Asia While there may have been the Long Peace during the cold war because of nuclear deterrence, but is it applicable to the Indo Pak relation? The answer to this question is more likely to be negative for the following reasons  [22]  :- While Pakistans security concern is India centric, those of India extend beyond South Asia. Thus the relation is not a standalone interaction but is subject to pressures from external factors, which are unpredictable. This is contrary to the relation dynamics of the cold war. India Pakistan also do not enjoy the same degree of independence of action, as was available to the US and USSR. This is due to the fact that, unlike the cold war rivals who were at the top of the power hierarchy, India and Pakistan will be subject to interference/influence in their policy and decision making processes. Geographical proximity of the two countries is also a facet which did not exist in the cold war and thus both countries will be affected by wind movements and fallout in case of a nuclear attack on the other. However, the foremost reason for non applicability of the theories in South Asia is because unlike the cold war where both the sides were led by satisfied powers i.e. the powers had accepted the status quo in Europe which was concretized by the Helsinki process, Pakistan is a revisionist state. Wherein Pakistan wants to change the status quo in South Asia w.r.t. Kashmir  [23]  . However to postulate feasibility for use of conventional forces for punitive action against Pakistan, it would be prudent to study Pakistans nuclear capabilities and command control setup besides the international relation theories. are feasible not only as per international relations theories but also practical in view of the nuclear weapons capability that Pakistan possesses and the nuclear command control structure it has in place to use a nuclear weapon against India. This is because to have an extremely low nuclear threshold, as Pakistan professes to have, it requires certain capabilities and infrastructure to be in place which is still deficient. Hence it is necessary to study the nuclear capability and command control setup of Pakistan. CHAPTER IV PAKISTANS NUCLEAR WEAPONS CAPABILITY AND COMMAND CONTROL SETUP Deterrence is greatest when military strength is coupled with the willingness to employ it. It is achieved when one sides readiness to run risks in relation to the other is high; it is least effective when the willingness to run risks is low, however powerful the military capability. Henry Kissinger The foundation for the India Pakistan conflict is complex, Pakistans fears about India are not only because of the imbalance of power and Indian ambition for regional power status, but also because of the pre Partition conflict and divergent ideas of nationalism  [24]  . Since independence the relations between the two countries have never been normal or even

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Free Essay on Shakespeares Macbeth - The Character of Lady Macbeth :: Free Essay Writer

The Evil Character of Lady Macbeth  Ã‚      In Shakespeare's Macbeth, Lady Macbeth is made to act as a catalyst in Lord Macbeth's evildoings. Even though Lord Macbeth is generally the one to have the final say in the many killings that take place in the play, Lady Macbeth plays the role of a villain alongside him. She mocks her Lord if he frets over something she has instructed him to do, saying he would be less of a man if he does not follow through on their plan (I. vii. 56-57). She gives Lord Macbeth a short lecture in deceptiveness when they are planning to kill King Duncan (I. vi. 73-78). She also prepared the daggers for Macbeth to kill Duncan in advance (II. ii. 15-16). Though her Lord was still having doubts, she was, in the most literal sense, ready to go in for the kill. Clearly demonstrating another villainous characteristic other than self- gain, Lady Macbeth shows the fear of getting caught when she unintentionally gives herself away in her sleep (V. i. 33, 37-42, 44-47, 53-55, 65-67, 69-72). Though her fear can suppress itself during a conscious state of being, she can do nothing about it when she is asleep.   Throughout the play and leading up to her eventual suicide, Lady Macbeth slowly weakens. Yet, in the beginning of the play, she acts as if she is unstoppable. When Macbeth has his doubts and fears about murdering the loyal Duncan, Lady Macbeth chastises him, calling him everything from a coward to a helpless baby (I. vii. 39-49, 53-67). She even offers to do it herself, possibly to make Macbeth feel that he's even more cowardly because a woman is offering to do "his" job. This pushes Macbeth to kill, though these are the actions that will eventually lead to both of their demises later in the play. Macbeth tries to convince Lady Macbeth, as well as himself, that she is wrong: 3 Prithee, peace. I dare do all that may become a man. Who dares more is none. (I. vii. 50-52) However, Macbeth does not seem to fully convince her, because he is still mocked by his wife. Whether he failed to convince himself or to convince his Lady is irrelevant; he went through with the murder anyhow. Not only does Lady Macbeth push her husband to do things he does not want to, but she also informs him that his face is too easy to read. Free Essay on Shakespeare's Macbeth - The Character of Lady Macbeth :: Free Essay Writer The Evil Character of Lady Macbeth  Ã‚      In Shakespeare's Macbeth, Lady Macbeth is made to act as a catalyst in Lord Macbeth's evildoings. Even though Lord Macbeth is generally the one to have the final say in the many killings that take place in the play, Lady Macbeth plays the role of a villain alongside him. She mocks her Lord if he frets over something she has instructed him to do, saying he would be less of a man if he does not follow through on their plan (I. vii. 56-57). She gives Lord Macbeth a short lecture in deceptiveness when they are planning to kill King Duncan (I. vi. 73-78). She also prepared the daggers for Macbeth to kill Duncan in advance (II. ii. 15-16). Though her Lord was still having doubts, she was, in the most literal sense, ready to go in for the kill. Clearly demonstrating another villainous characteristic other than self- gain, Lady Macbeth shows the fear of getting caught when she unintentionally gives herself away in her sleep (V. i. 33, 37-42, 44-47, 53-55, 65-67, 69-72). Though her fear can suppress itself during a conscious state of being, she can do nothing about it when she is asleep.   Throughout the play and leading up to her eventual suicide, Lady Macbeth slowly weakens. Yet, in the beginning of the play, she acts as if she is unstoppable. When Macbeth has his doubts and fears about murdering the loyal Duncan, Lady Macbeth chastises him, calling him everything from a coward to a helpless baby (I. vii. 39-49, 53-67). She even offers to do it herself, possibly to make Macbeth feel that he's even more cowardly because a woman is offering to do "his" job. This pushes Macbeth to kill, though these are the actions that will eventually lead to both of their demises later in the play. Macbeth tries to convince Lady Macbeth, as well as himself, that she is wrong: 3 Prithee, peace. I dare do all that may become a man. Who dares more is none. (I. vii. 50-52) However, Macbeth does not seem to fully convince her, because he is still mocked by his wife. Whether he failed to convince himself or to convince his Lady is irrelevant; he went through with the murder anyhow. Not only does Lady Macbeth push her husband to do things he does not want to, but she also informs him that his face is too easy to read.

The Genius of Klassik Komix :: Klassik Komix Essays

The Genius of Klassik Komix In "Klassik Komix" Steven Millhauser uses the well-known poem, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" by T. S. Elliot, to create an intermediary between complex poetic prose and the simplicity of the classic comic book. He uses descriptive language to beautifully capture the importance a writer's medium in the literary interpretation of his/her work while also demonstrating his love for the imagination. The original form of "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" is a poem, made up of poetic prose. Prose can vary in lexical makeup, which is decided by the writer, but usually consists of descriptions of subjects that allude to, and are analogous of, the underlying thoughts of the writer. This gives the lines a sense of vague beauty that allows the reader to interpret meanings in his/her own mind in contrast to simply spelling out the meanings. Poetry has the ability to evoke upon the reader a sense of reflection and deep thought in an effort to understand the message that the writer is delivering. The classic comic book is a polar opposite of the complex nature of poetry. The comic book is designed for the younger reader and possesses a simplistic nature that allows the creator to use visual media combined with short written dialog to tell a story. The pictures in a comic book are an integral part of the makeup of a comic book. The pictures allow the creator to portray the protagonist and antagonist in a way that is common to all readers. This however inhibits the use of imagination by the reader. The pictures are all an artist's interpretations of the actions and settings that make up each scene. When a person reads descriptive text with no pictures, it allows the reader to build a mental picture of each scene that is unique to his/her own personality. The comic book does not allow for this expressiveness in its prefabricated structure. Millhauser elegantly combines these two literary vehicles in his work "Klassik Komix" in a way that simplifies the form but still allows the reader to use his/her mind to draw its own pictures. "In the room women come and go / Talking of Michelangelo"(stanza 3).

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Cold war responsibility Essay -- essays research papers

Activity #4 – Essay â€Å"Truman was more responsible for the Cold War than Stalin was.† President Truman was convinced from the beginning that Stalin intended to take over countries based solely by the fact that there were communist parties present in them. France, Italy and even China, are perfect examples of this. And in the Greek civil war it wasn’t the USSR that was giving aid to the communists, it was Yugoslavia. It was obvious that Stalin had no major plans for any kind of global communist domination. But nevertheless, Truman placed the blame for the growing popularity of communism’s ‘political poison’ on Stalin, and convinced the American people to share his outlook. Without even looking at the fact that no USSR troops were in Greece, Truman and his advisers jumped on the chance to put forward their ‘domino theory’. This was a theory that said that if the communists won the Greek civil war, the end result would be Russian control of the whole middle east. He used this theory to justify military intervention in Greece, and ultimately, his ‘Truman Doctrine’ telling the entire world that the US was ready for a war. He told the ‘free peoples’ of the world that the time had come to choose between alternative ways of life – the communist way, or the democratic way. Stalin did not do this. President Truman worked with the British Prime Minister to introduce the Deutschmark into West Berlin. While it did eventually achieve his goal of creating an economically viable Germany, i...

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Relations Between Blacks and Whites

Japan’s economy can be traced back to World War II. After this period, many structural changes helped transform the Japanese economy. This was necessary because Japan had undergone through war that saw its economy near collapse. These changes in policies were through interaction with America, international market, and social mobilization (Ohno, 2006). At the time of war, there was a rapid growth in Japan’s economy. This period saw a rise of manufacturing industries due to materials necessity for the war. Such industries included the automobile industry. Once the war was over, most of the technologies and companies were converted to peaceful economic development (Ohno, 2006). This also saw expansion of private companies. There was also a desire to catch up with the west; new technology and management. The changing US policies were an instrumental success of Japan’s economy. This is because Japan was given permission to export to the US and at the same time protecting its domestic market (Ohno, 2006). The venture into export economy also leaped enormously from international marker of low tariffs; low prices of oil and materials needed for industrial expansion (Ohno, 2006). Another significant trend to the expansion of the economy was the welfare society in Japan instead of the welfare state. This helped Japan to direct most of its resources that would have been spent on welfare to industrial expansion (Ohno, 2006). After the 1950s, Japan’s government engaged in massive financing of the economy. This was through collaboration between the state and private sector. This revamped the economy and the gross national product expanded more than 10 percent annual with limited downturns (Ohno, 2006). There was also development of export economy; investment in technology. The export economy has remained, until now, where over 70 percent of manufactured goods are exported (Ohno, 2006). The other factor that helped was the provision of loans for business by the private banks and removal of monopoly in various sectors of the economy. Additionally, there was an increasing role of trade unions, part time workers, and small companies. There was a mutual understanding between industries and workers. Most of the workers on the short-term basis worked hard to get long-term employment. This helped in post war Japan takeoff in terms of economics (Ohno, 2006). The transition from 1970 to 1980 saw Japan catch up with the other industrial economies of the world. However, this trend was not to remain due to unchanging policies. There was a lack of modern investment opportunities and poor management (Sakisaka & Gaimusho, 2007). This led to business firms, real estate and financial institutions falling prey to speculation. This finally led to the ‘bubble’ economy (Ohno, 2006). The effects were to be felt in the 1990s. Japan continues to struggle to get out of these effects until now. This will only be possible through sweeping reforms. This paper seeks to focus on Japan’s economy. Japanese Geography, Language, and Population Japan is a country of East Asia. It is made up of thousands of islands. However, there are crucial islands. They include Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shiloku; these are the largest of those islands. Japan’s neighbors are Korea, Russia, and China. It has a size equal to Germany or California (Japan Guide, 2013). The language of most of the population is Japanese. However, there has been infiltration of foreign languages. The population is estimated to be 125 million (Japan Guide, 2013). In this estimate, two million are foreign residents. Most of the foreigners are the Korean. Japan is also vulnerable to earthquakes and volcanoes. This is because this country is mostly mountainous. Japan also has variations in climate, due to different islands that make up the country. Economy Japan’s economy ranks high in the world. In fact, Japan ranks second among the most developed nations. Japan GDP has been on the rise since 2004 (Trading Economics, 2012). However, there was a little stagnation in 2005 and 2006. Moreover, there was a reduction in GDP during 2007 to 2008. This was due to the challenges that faced the economy during this time. The annual growth rate of Japan has averaged 2. 1 percent for the last three decades (Trading Economics, 2012). The economy of Japan is majorly dominated by technological advancement. This has enabled Japan to enhance any materials received from other countries. This is because Japan is not endowed with minerals and other forms of raw materials. Most of Japan GDP is dominated by services (Trading Economics, 2012). These se rvices include wholesale and retail, as well as the real estate. The other driving force of the economy is the manufacturing sector. This accounts for nearly 22 percent of the GDP (Trading Economics, 2012). Moreover, constructions industry contributes heavily to the growth of the economy. This accounts for over 5 percent of the country GDP (Trading Economics, 2012). The rate of growth is expected to increase because of changing fiscal policies. Japan has been struggling with inflation for a long time. However, inflation is expected to slow down. For example, the central bank has introduced an inflation target of 2 percent (Einhorn, 2013). Various initiatives have been taken to curb inflation are already in place. The current one has been buying Yen to issue bonds. This will help by weakening the Yen and reviving inflation rate. However, Japan trade deficits have declined significantly. It stands at 362. 4 billion yen that is half of what was reported at the beginning of the year (Einhorn, 2013). However, in Japan there has been an increased in the number of unemployed individuals. For example, in March the unemployment rate was 4. 10 percent as compared to the onset of the year when it stood at 4. 3 (Trading Economics, 2012). For the last six decades, unemployment rate in Japan has averaged 2. 68 percent. However, it was at its highest level in July of 2009 at 5. 60 percent (Trading Economics, 2012). Japanese Openness, Currency, Current Exchange Rate, Primary Exports, Imports, Current Account Balance, Major Trading Partners, and Agreements The rate of openness of a country influences its economy in myriad ways. There is a role of importance in this trend to economic growth. The openness is reflected in terms of international knowledge streams and international movement of people, resources, and technology (Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry, 2011). Openness can also lead to failure of some key sector of the economy. This is due to unemployment and failure to compete by some companies on a global scale. Japan is poor as compared to other country of its caliber in terms of openness. This is evident in terms of comparison of countries export and imports of good and services compared to GDP (Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry, 2011). The country also shows less inward investment. However, in Japan there exists a higher exposure to international competition. For example, over 50 percent of Japanese automobile makers occur outside Japan (Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry, 2011). However, an exception occurs in the food, beverage, and tobacco sector. The sectors that deal with agriculture are cautioned by the government international competition. In Japan, there is also exposure to international trade. In fact, Japan intra-industry business comprises half of all trade (Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry, 2011). In addition, Japan appears as one of the country hard to make use of foreign labor. The Japanese currency is yen. The US dollar to Japanese yen exchange rate currently is at 99. 25. Japan has largely focused on export due to its processing nature. Japan receives raw materials from different countries and then adds value before exporting. The main export of Japan includes transportation equipments, motor vehicles, electrical machinery, and chemicals (Economy and Trade Fact Sheet, n. d. ). Most of Japan’s imports are raw materials. They include oil, foodstuff, and wood (Economy and Trade Fact Sheet, n. d. ). The import/export stability has helped Japan have a significant trade partners. These partners include United States, China, Germany, Indonesia, South Korea, and the United Arab Emirates (Economy Watch, 2010). The country has also been the main export market for over ten trading nations worldwide (Economy Watch, 2010). The financial crisis of 2008 affected the international trade of the country. The export volume declined to $516. 3 in 2009 as compared to over 700 billion the previous year (Economy Watch, 2010). In 2010, the total value of export was over 750 billion US dollars (Economy Watch, 2010). Japan is also a member of world commerce and trade agreements. Currently, Japan is a member of many international organizations. They include APEC, WTO, OECD, the G-8, and the G-20 (Economy Watch, 2010). Japan is also advancing towards Economic Partnership Agreement instead of Free Trade Agreements. Japanese Trade Policy and Trade Barriers in Various Periods Japan’s trade policies and barriers have changed depending on the status of the economy in different periods of its history. These policies have changed depending on the status of the economy. In 19th century, the country was committed to industrializing as well as carrying out military expansion. Consequently, the government promoted imports of the manufactured and capital goods that were not available in Japan (Sato, 1999). On the other hand, in order to promote export, the government introduced policies that would ensure there was an improvement in quality, production, and standardization of potential or existing exports (Rapp, 1978). Another policy was the introduction of export quality checks. This took place after the end of World War II. There was screening of firms export technology imports and quality control were controlled and enhanced in the country (Rapp, 1978). There was also institutionalization of export cartel; to reduce competition that could be detrimental to individual firms and economy (Rapp, 1978). This was prominent during the 1950s and 1960s. The government have supported research and development in computers to make Japanese producers competitive worldwide. There was lowering on tariffs on raw materials. This increased the effective protection to value added and promoted manufacturing (Rapp, 1978). When the value of yen decreased in the 1930, some companies like Ford were forced to close. There was also checking on the import of assembled motor vehicles. Further policies were implemented after the war. These policies included quotas on import taking account of key raw materials such as coal (Sato, 1999). There were also protective tariffs on manufacturers and raw materials were outsourced toll free. In order to secure foreign exchange, the government regulated the import and amount paid on the required technology (Rapp, 1978). The government also encouraged exports through exceptional tax and credit incentives. Successes and Challenges Faced By Japan in International Trade A country involvement in international trade has its advantages and challenges. The liberal international economic order was beneficial to Japan. This was due to reduction of barrier. Japan exploited this growth and contributed to revenue growth and rising living standards in the country (Noland, 2000). There was a revival of key infrastructure through these programs. However, the country continues to face challenges in international trade. One of the challenges is economic domination by the United States. Secondly, there is growing suspicion from other Asian countries on activities of Japan. The political system in the country is also a challenge to this trade. There is also a replacement of Japan trading activities by emerging economy in East Asia such as China (Cooper, 2013). Trade and Investment Liberalization Should Be Pursued By Japan In Order To Achieve Economic Growth Japan currently is experiencing economic stagnation. This can only be rescued by trade liberalization. The first thing the country should do is to open its domestic market to foreign companies. This will help in areas such as agricultural revival. The other action should be Internationalization of science and innovation. This will help in submission of external earning, enhance the local currency, and will lead to improved direct investment. There should also be openness to labor; highly skilled foreign workers. This will help in improving materials for export, improved trade, and earnings. Conclusion It is clear that Japan’s economics has gone through a period of transformation. Especially before the 21st century. Initially, Japan experienced increased economic growth. However, at the end of the 20th century, Japan experienced an economic downturn. Currently, Japan is on the road to recovery through sweeping reforms it has been undertaking. There has been various policies and tariffs. In addition, there has also been increased revenue through adding value to manufactured goods. This has also helped Japan to be one of the main export/import partners in the world. Japan has benefited from global trade. On the other hand, the international trade has affected Japan.

Monday, September 16, 2019


CHRIST UNIVERSITY Hosur Road, Bangalore Department of Management Studies Course Plan-2012-2013 Subject/Code: Organizational Behaviour/BBM 232 |Name of the faculty | Email | |Dr. Jain Mathew |[email  protected] in | |Mr. John Paul |john. [email  protected] in | |Ms.Mary Thomas |mary. [email  protected] in | |Ms. Vinita Seshadri |vinita. [email  protected] in | INTRODUCTION To provide students with thorough knowledge in theory and concepts of organizational behavior, also to equip them to address the contemporary changes related to the behavior and performance of people in organizations today.Teaching and learning approach Each week's teaching sessions will comprise: Four- Hour lecture including student centered activity During which you will be introduced to the topic for that week. It is important to note that the coverage of each topic during the lecture will be incomplete unless you read the references provided and attempt the tutorial questions that cover that topic. It is important to note that for each topic a set of objectives is given and it is your responsibility to ensure that you meet those objectives.Recommended text books Stephen Robbins, Timothy A. Judge, Seema Sanghi, Organizational Behavior, 13th Edition Pearson Education, Journals Human Capital MBA Review HRM Review ICFAI HR HBR Review Case Folio Lecture Schedule: 1. MODULE – Introduction to Organizational Behaviour 1. 1 Objectives †¢ Understand the importance of interpersonal skills in the workplace. †¢ Describe the manager’s function, role and skills. – Week |Topics |Hour |Methodology | | |Nature, importance and purpose of organizations |1 |Discussion | | | | | | |Nov 5 – Nov 10 | | | | | |Managerial Skills by Robert Katz |2 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Management Roles by Mintzberg |3 |PPT; video showing various roles | | |Effective versus successful Managerial Activities|4 |Group discussion and reflections | | |- | | | | |Luthan’s study | | | 1B. 2 Objectives: On completion of the material you would be able to: †¢ Define Organization Behaviour †¢ Trace the historical roots of organization behaviour †¢ Explain OB Model †¢ Identify the major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB †¢ Identify the challenges and opportunities managers have in applying OB Concepts Week |Topics |Hour |Methodology | | |Introduction to Organization Behaviour – OB Model|1 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | | | | | |Nov 12 –Nov 19 | | | | | |Challenges in handling OB |2 |Group discussion and reflections | | |Contribution from other disciplines |3 |Concept Mapping | | |Case Study |4 |Use as a tool to explain how to approach OB case | | | | |studies | 1+. 2 Reference Prerequisite readings – Chapter 1 Stephen Robbins, Timothy A. Judge , Seema Sanghi , Organizational Behavior, 14th Edition Pearson Education 2. MODULE – II Personality 2. 1 Objectives: On completion of the material you would be able to: †¢ Define Personality, describe how it is measured and factors that determine n individual’s personality †¢ Identify Personality Traits relevant to OB and it’s applications in the workplace |Week |Topics |Hour |Methodology | | |Meaning & Determinants of personality |1 |Concept Mapping | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Nov 20 – Dec 4 | | | | | |Theories of personality: Type and Trait theory |2 |Activity: ‘Favourite Personality’ | | |The ‘Big Five’ Personality Traits |3 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Experiential Exercise: Big Five Personality |4 |Questionnaire | | |Trait | | | | |Myers-Briggs Indicator |5 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Psychoanalytical theory |6 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Erickson’s personality |7 |Lecture (C/PPT); Handout | | |Group Activity9-+ |8 |Write up on various personality +-+traits of famous | | | | |personalities | | |Case Study |9 |Case discussion/Written Analysis | 2. 2 Reference: Prerequisi te readings –Ch. 4 Stephen Robbins, Timothy A. Judge , Seema Sanghi , Organizational Behavior, 14th Edition Pearson Education 3. MODULE- III Learning Meaning of learning –– Learning theory of Organisational Behaviour-Classical- Operant conditioning- Cognitive- Observation Theory 3. 1 Objectives: On completion of the material you would be able to: †¢ Define and understand what is Learning †¢ Four theories which explains how learning takes place †¢ Learning principles which needs to be observed in any training programme †¢ Its impact on individual behaviour and organization Week |Topics |Hour |Methodology | | |Meaning of learning |1 |Concept Mapping | | | | | | | | | | | |Dec 5 – Dec 21 | | | | | |Learning process |2 |Discussion | | |Classical conditioning |3 |Lecture (C/PPT) & video | | |Operant conditioning |4 |Lecture (C/PPT) & video | | |Cognitive Theory |5 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Social Learning Theory |6 |Group discussion – ‘Role Models’ | | |Group Activity |7 |Presentation on videos depicting various learning | | | | |styles/skits | | |Principles of Learning-Reinforcement and |8 |Lecture (C/PPT) | |Punishment | | | | |Learning Curve |9 |Discussion | | |Case Study |10 |Case discussion/Written Analysis | 3. 2 Reference: Prerequisite readings – Chapter 9 K. Aswathappa, 9th edition, OB-Himalaya Publishing House / Chapter 4- Kavitha Singh-OB Text and Cases-Pearson Education / Chapter 4-OB- Hellriegel & Slocum- Thomson 4. MODULE- IV Attitudes Meaning, Characteristics and functions- Components-the ABC Model- Formation of attitude Meaning, Charecteristics, Components and Formation of attitudes. Change in attitude- Barriers to change- How to minimize the barriers. 4. 1 Objectives On completion of the material you would be able to: †¢ Contrast the three components of an attitude †¢ Discuss attitude and attitude formation †¢ Relate attitude to behaviour Week |Topics |Hour |Me thodology | | |Meaning, Characteristics and functions |1 |Concept Mapping | | | | | | | | | | | |Jan 2 – Jan 12 | | | | | |Components-the ABC Model |2 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Cognitive Dissonance; Job |3 |GroupDiscussion | | |Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction | | | | |Formation of attitudes- Changing attitudes |4 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Barriers to change, How to minimize the barriers |5 |Video | | |Case Study |6 |Case discussion/Written Analysis | 4. 2 Reference: Prerequisite readings – Ch 3 Stephen Robbins, Timothy A. Judge , Seema Sanghi , Organizational Behavior, 14th Edition Pearson Education 5. MODULE – V – PERCEPTION Meaning and definition – Need, Factors influencing perception, perceptual consistency, Context and definition,. 5. 1 Objectives: On completion of the material you would be able to: †¢ Understand importance and factors contributing for perception †¢ Understand the concepts in perceptual Organization Understand factors contri buting towards the interpretation of data |Week |Topics |Hour |Methodology | | |Meaning, nature and importance of Perception |1 |Concept Mapping | | | | | | | | | | | |Jan 21 – Jan 31| | | | | |Factors influencing perception |2 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Experiential Exercise 1 |3 |Story telling based on pictures | | |Perceptual Process |4 |Group discussion | | |Interpersonal perception 5 |Video | | |Case Study |6 |Case discussion/Written Analysis | 5. 2 Reference Prerequisite readings – Chapter 6 K. Aswathappa, 9th edition, OB-Himalaya Publishing House 6. MODULE –VI Group Behaviour and Group Dynamics 6. 1 Objectives: On completion of the module you would be able to: †¢ Analyse the different stages of group formation and development. †¢ Differentiate formal and informal groups. †¢ Know the factors that increase or decrease group cohesiveness †¢ Differentiate between groups and teams. †¢ Discuss the conditions for building successful teams. Week |Topics |Hour |Methodology | | |Meaning and types of groups |1 |Concept Mapping | | | | | | | | | | | |Feb 1 – Feb 12 | | | | | |Formation of groups |2 |Activity + Reflection | | |Characteristics of Groups (Size, Norms, Status, |3 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Roles) | | | | |Characteristics of Groups (Cohesiveness, |4 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Groupthink, Groupshift) | | | | |Group decision making |5 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Groups vs Teams |6 |Discussion | 6. 2 Reference: *Aswathappa –Ch. 14 and 15, Organizational Behavior (Text, cases and Games), 9th Edition, Himalaya Publication 7. MODULE – VII Leadership 7. 1 Objectives: On completion of this module you would be able to: †¢ Differentiate Leadership and management. †¢ Leadership styles and their impact on followers. †¢ Transformational leadership, women as leaders and charismatic leadership are emerging issues in leadership. Week |Topics |Hour |Methodology | | |Meaning, concept and Differences wit h managers |1 |Concept Mapping | | | | | | | | | | | |Feb 13 – Feb 23| | | | | |Leadership Styles |2 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Managerial Grid; Situational Leadership (Hersey &|3 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Blanchard) | | | | |Tannenbaum and Schmidt; Path Goal theory |4 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Transactional, Transformational & Charismatic |5 |Presentations by students | | |leaders | | | | |Communication: Meaning and importance, barriers |6 |Discussion | 7. 2 Reference: *Aswathappa –Ch. 18, Organizational Behavior (Text, cases and Games), 9th Edition, Himalaya Publication 8. MODULE – VIII Motivation 8. 1 Objectives: On completion of the material you would be able to: †¢ Identify major content theories of work motivation Explain the major process theories of work motivation †¢ Understand theories of motivation and evaluate their applicability today |Week |Topics |Hour |Methodology | | |Meaning and Concept of motivation |1 |Concept Mapping | | | | | | | | | | | |Feb 25 – Mar 4 | | | | | |Content Theories of Motivation – Two factor |2 |Presentations by students | | |theory, Theory X & Y | | | | |Alderfer ERG Theory; McClleland’s need |3 |Presentations by students | | |classification | | | | |Process Theories- Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, |4 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Porter-Lawler theory | | | | |Case Study |5 |Case discussion/Written Analysis | 8. 2 Reference: Prerequisite readings – Chapter 11- K. Aswathappa, 9th edition, OB-Himalaya Publishing House / Chapter 6- Stephen Robbins, Timothy A. Judge , Seema Sanghi / Chapter 8- Fred Luthans- OB- 9th Edition Mc Graw Hill. 9. MODULE-IX- Organizational Change 9. 1 Objectives: On completion of the module you would be able to understand †¢ The nature, level, need and types of change. †¢ The reasons for change in organization. †¢ The reasons why people resist change in organization. †¢ The change process. Week |Topics |Hour |Methodology | | |Nat ure and Levels of Change |1 |Concept Mapping | | | | | | | | | | | |Feb 25 – Mar 4 | | | | | |Types and Forces for Change & Lewin’s Model for |2 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Change Management | | | | |Change Process ( Six Stages) |3 |Lecture (C/PPT) | | |Resistance to change (RTC) and methods dealing |4 |Discussions | | |with RTC | | | 9. 2 Reference: *Aswathappa –Ch. 22, Organizational Behavior (Text, cases and Games), 9th Edition, Himalaya Publication Continuous Internal Assessment CIA 1 – Mid Semester Examinations for 2 hours and 50 marks CIA 2 – Comprising of the following 3 components of 10 marks each: i) Article Review – The student will be required to read a specified article and present the review in the following format †¢ Name of the Author, Year of Publication, Title of the article †¢ Objective of the study †¢ Methodology adopted – o Sample (Technique and size) o Tools o Analysis †¢ Findings of the study †¢ Recommendations of the author (ii) MCQ test. (iii) Case analysis – The case must be analyzed in the following manner †¢ Critical analysis o Key facts in the case o Central problem in the case o Theoretical concept it relates to †¢ Answer the Questions †¢ Recommendations/Suggestions + Conclusion CIA 3 – Comprising of the following 3 components of 10 marks each: (i) Written Case analysis of a comprehensive case following the format specified above. (ii) MCQ conducted through LMS (iii) Class participation evaluated through Q, Activities,