Saturday, August 31, 2019

How to Survive High School Essay

Maybe your friends from middle school are going to a different high school, or even if you know other freshmen, you might not know many upperclassmen. This is why it is very important to attend freshman orientations. These are helpful not only because you learn your way around the building and get to meet some of your teachers, but you also get to meet fellow freshmen. When you talk to people at orientation, you’ll probably find that a lot of them are feeling just like you are. They’re all new to the school and don’t know what to expect either. Talking to your classmates about a common concern could even spark a new friendship. Secondly, you should learn more about your teachers. Some freshman teachers are nice and kind at times. However, in order to avoid their negativity, you must go by all of their rules. Different teachers will have different expectations. Learn what they are and don’t make your high school experience rough, by trying to make your own rules. Some rules will seem unfair and some will seem stupid, but if you go by them, you will find that life is much easier. You don’t have to be a teacher’s pet to do this, and you just don’t have to be a rebel either. Just remember, in all cases, think things through before you act. Sometimes it will save you a lot of trouble in the end. Thirdly, you should maintain a good reputation. Having a good reputation at high school is very important. You should always take responsibility for your actions, and choose them wisely. We remember people by their actions as much as we remember their hair color. While embarrassing moments are unavoidable and nothing to be ashamed about, dishonest or vicious behavior is well within your control. Last but not least, you should always be yourself. I know everyone says it, but if you’re not yourself, who else are you going to be? Everyone has their quirks which makes them unique. There’s nothing interesting about a high school full of clones. Embrace your uniqueness. To enjoy your time, always be who you are. Opportunities are going to present themselves, and who knows where these opportunities might lead. Don’t ever change who you are just to fit in. You’ll never be as happy pretending to be someone you’re not when you could be yourself. As you can see, high school is only what you make it. Following my advice will only make your freshman year a lot better. These are a few tips on how to you can survive your freshman year in high school.

Friday, August 30, 2019

The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution and Its Impact on Our Environment Posted by admin In Environment I Comments Off The Industrial Revolution began in Britain In the 1700's, and spread to the rest of the world, beginning with the United States. The use of machinery and factories led to mass production, which in turn led to the development of numerous environmental hazards. The effects on the environment would only be seen clearly years later. The use of factories and mass production has led to a depletion of certain natural esources, leaving the environment permanently damaged.One example of this depletion is deforestation, which is the clearing of forest trees for use in production. When the trees are cleared, the wildlife in the forest also becomes uprooted. The lack of trees is only compounded by the problem of carbon emissions. Whereas forests would help emit oxygen and refresh the levels of healthy gases in the air, factories are emitting poisonous emissions and ellmlnatlng the source of oxygen. The pollution that has resulted from factories Involves not only airborne emissions but land and water pollution as well.The primary issue resulting from pollution and carbon emissions is that of global warming. As the temperature rises, the glaciers are melting and oceans are rising. More animal species are becoming endangered or extinct as a result of global warming. @The upside of the Industrial Revolution has certainly been the mass production of food for the world population. The population has grown by leaps and bounds due to the availability of food, yet at the same time the mass production of man-made and chemically altered food has also contributed to worldwide obesity and health problems.Obesity may also be linked to the edentary lifestyle made possible by the use of factory-made home appliances which have made life easier for homemakers (I. e. washing machines, dishwashers) and recreational appliances (namely televisions). While the Industrial Revolution was the c ause of posltlve change for the Industrial world, there Is no question that It has wreaked havoc on the environment. The depletion of natural resources, the carbon emissions, pollution and human health problems that have resulted directly from the Industrial Revolution's accomplishments have only been disastrous for the world environment. The Industrial Revolution

Environmental issues Essay

It was not yet realized by the public the seriousness of the environmental problems we face if not for the issue on global warming. Dozens of organizations, many of them with international memberships, are now working on everything from saving wildlife to developing new sources of energy. But pollution, energy consumption and economic growth are independent problems. Effective programs for dealing with one of them often aggravate the others. For example, devices that clean automobile exhaust and reduce air pollution also decreases fuel economy, thereby using up our limited reserves more rapidly. Similarly, banning the burning of household trash reduces air pollution but increases environmental pollution, as land, animals and scenery are sacrificed for strip mines and oil wells, and the wastes produced by the fuel are dumped into the environment. On the other hand, ignoring the need for more energy retards the economy, thereby increasing unemployment and possibly reducing food product ion. Nature is fighting back against the abuses we have inflicted upon it! Due to human carelessness that damaged the environment, many communities are now suffering from environmental crises. The air that you breathe contains gases such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide in certain amounts. But many people live in areas where the air contains pollutants that are harmful to their health. Air pollution is a common problem in congested and urban areas (The Washington Times 2006, p.26). Food, air and water needed for life’s processes which the environment provides unfortunately contain harmful substances called pollutants. The presence of air, water and soil in the environment is of waste materials or pollutants which the environment cannot handle, degrade, disperse or diffuse so that it becomes unclean and unhealthy is called pollution (Colla 2002, p.125). Â  There are four general types of pollution, namely: 1. Air Pollution – It is an undesirable change in the physical and chemical characteristics of air. Industrial plants, motor vehicles, indiscriminate throwing and burning of refuse everywhere make the air polluted. Cigarette smoking contributes to air pollution, most especially in enclosed places. Foul smell from waste and methane gas emitted through the combustion of refuse contributes to the problem of air pollution (Kemp1994, p.23). Prolonged exposure to air pollution may cause/aggravate respiratory and other diseases as well as irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. 2. Water Pollution – this results when water contains more harmful substances such as harmful bacteria and poisonous chemicals, than it can naturally get rid of. The dumping of domestic and industrial wastes into the rivers, canals, and other water bodies causes pollutants to be introduced into waterways. Frequent flooding which carry topsoil and sewage into the water supplies pollute the water, too. Sugar mills, distillers and mining firms without proper waste disposal systems are among the principal polluters of the nation’s waterways. Soap and water detergents produce enormous persistent layers of suds on the surface of receding waters. Substances such as harmful bacteria and poisonous chemicals are likely to cause gastro-intestinal diseases, cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery, infectious hepatitis, food poisoning and even death. Mercury in sea water is absorbed by tiny plants that provide food for small fish, which is eaten by a larger fish. When they are eaten by men, mercury is deposited in the kidneys and brain which may cause death when accumulated (Kemp 1994, p.23). 3. Land Pollution – This takes place when harmful substances are introduced into the soil making it unable to sustain plant life. Dumping areas are breeding places of disease carriers such as flies, rodents, mosquitoes and cockroaches. Uses of excessive amounts of fertilizer, pesticides and other toxic chemicals can destroy the ability of the soil to self-generate. They deplete the nutrients, harden the texture, and increase toxicity, making the soil less productive. Other causes of land pollution are atomic fallouts and mine tailings which poison agricultural lands. Toxic residues from the accumulation of chemicals in the land can cause cancer and other diseases (Kemp 1994, p.24). 4. Noise Pollution (Persistent noise) – This refers to the presence of too loud, too sudden or very unpleasant sound that becomes an assault to the body causing mental or physical harm. The roaring of motor vehicles, grating sound of jackhammer, squeaking of tires, screeching brakes, blaring television sets, radios and stereos and even loud shouting are some types of dangerous noises when one is continuously exposed to them. Noise pollution affects not only the ears but also directly or indirectly impairs the mind and the whole body. Directly, it can cause deafness; indirectly, it may lead to increased heart beat and high blood pressure that eventually cause cardiovascular disease (Kemp 1994, p.24). Most pollution is caused by man, pollutants will increase as population grows, and hence, minimizing the production of pollutants and managing its proper disposal must be the goal of every human being. But the air pollution must be given extra attention by the government, society and each individual to protect people from this environmental danger, not only for ourselves but for future generations. Air Pollution, Environmental Hazard There are five basic pollutants of air are carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide, hydrocarbons (organic compounds made up of hydrogen and carbon) and small particles that float in the air (Jordan 2005, p.12-20). Sources of Air Pollution 1. Automobile exhausts The poisonous carbon monoxide in the air comes from automobiles. Nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons are also produced as by-products of engine combustion. The more vehicles there are on the road, the greater is the possibility of pollution. Unleaded gasoline and some anti-pollution automobile parts cut down the amount of pollutants in the air. But transportation vehicles are still a major cause of air pollution. 2. Industry Industries are responsible for the second largest amount of pollution in the air, next only to vehicles. Fuels that are used in some industries may give off large amounts of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide and harmful particles of dust and ash. Sulfur oxide is made when fuels containing sulfur like coal are burned. Certain industrial processes may give off more of one pollutant than another. This depends on the kind of fuel used and the product that is being made. 3. Individuals People pollute the air in many ways. Each time a person smokes a cigar/cigarette, the air is being polluted when he burns trash, air pollution is increased. More pollution is added when he uses wood for cooking or to keep warm during the cold months or cool during the hot months. Effects of Air Pollution 1. Respiratory disorders If you have breathed polluted air, the eyes may water, the nose may run and a cough may develop. Serious illnesses are likely to happen to people long exposed to polluted air. Chronic bronchitis, emphysema and lung cancer are common in air polluted areas. Cigarette smoking is closely related to the development of long cancer. Heart diseases, especially heart attacks occur more in places where there is a high level of carbon monoxide in the air. 1. Accidents Vehicle accidents happen more often in places where air is polluted. These accidents may be caused by poor visibility in the polluted air. Or they may be caused by increased exposure to carbon monoxide. People with watery eyes, headaches and breathing problems often find it hard to drive in air polluted areas. 2. High economic cost The government may spend billions of pesos per year to control air pollution. However, little has been done by the government to control air pollution due to the struggling economy and the low economic growth. The United States spends around 4o billion dollars a year to control air pollution. The cost of air pollution is about 200 dollars per year for each person. Air pollution can also add to the rusting and corrosion of vehicles and machinery. Even farm crops may be harmed or stunted in growth by air pollution. There is a way out of this trap. In a word, it is sacrifice. The fact that there is no way both to clean up the environment and conserve natural resources without changing the life-style of people in the industrialized nations. The challenge is that of motivating people to make the necessary changes now, before a worldwide disaster forces much more difficult adjustments upon us. Preventing of Air Pollution Everyone needs to care more about the problem of air pollution. Car exhausts and air conditioning systems can be checked at regular times and kept in good working condition. Air conditioners, if not working properly, may give off harmful hydrocarbons. Vehicles should not be allowed to idle for more than a few minutes because idling lets carbon monoxide escape in the sir. Use of public transportation would also lower the number of vehicles on the road and in return would also lower air pollution. Strict laws on transportation and industry must be enforced. Instead of burning trash, it should be allowed to decompose in pits. The decomposed materials can be utilized as fertilizer for plants and at the same time minimizes smoke in the air. Stricter laws on cigarette smoking should also be enforced. The end result of this is lesser lung and heart ailments and cleaner atmosphere (Cline 1992, p.35-37). Political Action The real problem comes from the wealth the power of the opponents of environmental protection. On the local level, environmentalist face rich land developers who can make large campaign contributions to the politicians who decide what land may or may not be developed. At higher levels of government, environmentalists face even more powerful foes: multinational corporations that stand to make big profits from despoiling the environment. Included here are some of the most powerful corporations in the world, such as petroleum and mineral companies that want to sink wells and mines in fragile wilderness areas, the manufacturers that spew pollutants into the air and water, and the firms that sell products such as polluting automobiles and unsafe pesticides. Such corporations have spent hundreds of million dollars to persuade the government not to outlaw their destructive activities (Diehl, p.20-21). The environmentalists and the concerned public simply do not have that kind of money. If we are to preserve the natural environment for ourselves and the generations to come, two things must be done. First, a stronger educational campaign must be launched to make more people aware of environmental problems. Second, more ordinary citizens must join together and become involved in the political action necessary to strengthen anti-pollution laws, increase the enforcement effort, and protect our natural resources. Conserving Resources There is no doubt that our existing resources can be used far more efficiently. It is possible for a large-scale, multiple-stage recycling program to be introduced in imitation of natural ecosystems. To take a simple example, garbage could be used as fuel to run the mills to make recycled paper, the wastes from which could be burned as fuel. Similarly, it is possible that community water districts will some day become closed systems, meaning that the water would be used again and again, never being discharged into an ocean or river. Some factories already have such closed systems (Sarewitz 2000, p.55). It is possible to envision larger closed systems designed so that no industrial material would ever be discarded as either waste or pollution. Energy conservation can also stretch our natural resources. Insulating homes, driving smaller cars at slower speeds, riding trains and buses instead of driving cars, recycling the heat used in factories, and restricting the manufacture of energy-wasting gadgets are obvious ways of eliminating waste. The immediate task is not to develop technologies that are more energy sufficient; the challenge is to find ways or persuading people to use the conservation measures that are already available. Better Technology A growing number of scientists and concerned citizens are coming to see solar system as the best answer to the world’s energy problems. Solar power units use the endless supply of energy from the sun, are nonpolluting, and pose no threat of radiation or explosion. Other promising approaches use specially prepared ponds of water to trap solar energy or mirrors to concentrate it on a single location, where it can be used to generate electrical power (Tennesen 2004, p.85). Limiting Growth Technological solutions are attractive, but it is doubtful that they alone can resolve the environmental crisis. It is often argued that industrial growth is necessary to create new jobs for a growing population. The argument that economic growth is necessary to eliminate poverty and create a more egalitarian society is also misleading. Despite decades of rapid economic growth, the industrialized nations continue to show enormous inequalities of wealth and power (1991, p.12). Conclusion The environmental crisis does not mean everyone should return to hunting and gathering; the world’s current population is too large to even consider such an idea. Keeping a clean environment is the responsibility of the government, society and each individual. Today, air pollution must be given extra attention to protect people from this environmental danger. All of us must have aknowledge of this environmental menace. The young generations today, like us, crave for the total preservation of our natural resources, earnestly begging to put an end to wastage and preserve the natural wealth intended by our Mother Earth for the future. Yes, there is still gleaming hope to save our Mother Earth from total destruction. There is still a chance to regain the lost paradise we unscrupulously abused. We must do our part to make this world a safer place to live in, not just for ourselves and our neighbors but our future generations. The will to dynamic implementation to this urgent call lies in your strong and sustainable support, giving once more Mother Earth a chance to care for our lives now and in the future generations.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Trifles Dead Bird Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Trifles Dead Bird - Essay Example Mrs. Peters points to a broken jar that the author refers to as preserves. From this, the sheriff wonders how a woman can worry about her preserves while she is facing murder charges. The sheriff, from this statement implies that there are certain things that only a woman needs to worry about. The preserves symbolize anything that women worry about more than men. At some point, the women also commented on the tidiness of the house. Well, men in the society from this play do not pay attention to such things and are always complaining of a messy house (Glaspell, 202). Mrs. Wright’s husband seemed to displease her. The mistakes her husband made, ‘trifles’ were considered among the reasons for her wanting to kill her husband. On another instance, the author expresses her belief that on marriage, a woman loses her identity, and becomes what her husband is. This is seen in the play when the County attorney says that a sheriff’s wife is married to the law. The sheriff’s wife is Mrs. Peters. Mrs. Wright is described as jovial and one who loves to wear colorful clothing. However, on marriage she becomes the opposite. The untidy state of her house is reflected to her husband. In the play, the ladies also share a belief with the men that they are of little importance. It is also observed from the play that women did not share trivial issues with the men. The men did not see value in whatever opinions they held. The women thought that if they shared their thoughts with the men they would be laughed at. They also considered their opinions as trifles. On the search for evidence, the women discussed minor issues that would collect up to substantial evidence. The men, however, were looking for a major piece of evidence since they considered the minor pieces as trifles. The women even had doubts that the trifles would solve the crime due to the little value put on them by the men. The fact that Mrs.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Animals and the Myriad Ways They Can Kill or Heal Us Essay

Animals and the Myriad Ways They Can Kill or Heal Us - Essay Example Bee venom is also referred to as apitoxin or bee sting venom. Scientifically, it is also known by such names as apis venenum and apitoxine among others (Stearns, 2012). As the name suggests, bee venom is a product of bees. As a matter of fact, it is the venom that makes it painful when a person is stung by bees. Nonetheless, bee venom should not be confused with honey, bee pollen or royal jelly. Basically, bee venom is a major product of the bees. These insects use it as a defense mechanism or a weapon to protect their territory. This article reveals that bee venom is not only feared but also does magic within human body. Bee venom contains some wonderful substances. In fact, it contains up to forty pharmacologically active ingredients. Some of them include mellitin, apamin, adolapin, dopamine and others. Each of these active substances has a different effect on our bodies. This means that once a bee stings a person, the pain dies after about one hour, and the venom left behind begin s to do wonders. Of course, the introduction (actual insertion of the bee sting into human body) is painful and feared by almost everyone. On the other hand, bee venom can be used to combat a number of ailments including insomnia, headache, inflammation, osteoarthritis, skin problems and others. In fact, it has been said that when a person has severe headache, he or she could have a quick relief via a bee sting. This practice is normally referred to as BVT (bee venom therapy). Astonishingly, bee venom has recently been found to contain a key ingredient that destroys HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). Perhaps, this is a breakthrough, especially considering that HIV/AIDS has continually killed millions of people without cure (Saini & Peterson, 1999). Bee venom has not only been shown to destroy HIV cells, but it also does so without harming other cells. This is very important in treatment of any other disease because the aim is not just to kill the bacteria but also to protect other body cells. Researchers have loaded the toxin (referred to as melittin) onto nanoparticles styled with bumpers that normal cells bounced off unaffected. According to the researchers, HIV cells are small enough and can fit between bumpers. This means that they can make contact with the surface of the nanoparticles where bee venom awaits (ScienceDaily, 2013). Consequently, melittin on these nanoparticles fuses with viral envelopes and ruptures them. Of course, this strips the virus’s shell thereby killing it. The difference between the bee venom technique and existing HIV treatment drugs is that the latter techniques attempt to slow down the virus’s ability to duplicate. It is worth noting that the virus has also evolved to evade most of these anti-HIV drugs. What is more, bee venom ingredients (in particular melittin) attack the virus’ natural structure. There is theoretically no mechanism to grow adaptive evasion responses to this. Altogether, ingredients found in bee venom are strategically placed to destroy HIV. The bee venom antiviral therapy has propositions for areas rampant with HIV. For instance, it can be used by women together with vaginal preventative gel. This prevents the initial infection. In addition, treatments could be devised for drug resistant HIV. Such treatments can be delivered intravenously, potentially clearing the blood of the virus. Let us not forget the possibility for this type of treatment being applicable for couples in

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico Assignment

New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico - Assignment Example Under the Foraker Law which was established on April 2, 1900, Puerto Rico became the first unincorporated territory of the United States to enjoy a free commerce and civil government relationship with the United States ( Barcelo, Carlos Romero â€Å"Puerto Rico USA: The Case for Statehood† ). As a responsible member of the New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico, I feel that it is my duty to help my countrymen make an informed decision about this particular cause based upon facts. Facts that have a direct relation and impact upon the citizens of Puerto Rico. To begin with, I would like to present you all with the fact of Puerto Rican life should we opt to continue without U.S. citizenship. I would like everyone to remember that at this current point in time, Puerto Rico is enjoying the liberties of being a part of the United States without actually losing our status as a commonwealth. Although the United States governs a majority or our nations activities and political decisions, they do so without infringing on our rights as residents and nationals of Puerto Rico. Although statehood has somehow always been on the table, it has not become a reality yet. Statehood is a permanent change from which our nation can never turn back. When we incorporate ourselves into America as a state, we become Americans who follow American law, pay American taxes, and follow American culture. Gone is the chance for secession and our commonwealth status shall be nothing but a part of the past of Puerto Rico (â€Å"Major Disadvantages of Statehood†). Currently, we enjoy the unique relationship that the United states has with Puerto Rico. We manage to have an independent set of governing rules and regulations even as we continue to have a noticeable American presence in our nation. As the legal minds explain it; International and constitutional law arbitrarily collide in the legal arrangement between the United States and Puerto Rico. As a matter of international law, it i s unclear whether this arrangement conforms to customary international treaties and obligations. As a matter of national law, it is unclear that the constitution permits an arrangement between Puerto Rico and the United States ---- short of separation (independence as a state) or integration (admission to the union as a state) -- that could conform to these international obligations (Lawson & Sloane â€Å"The Constitutionality of Decolonization by Associated Statehood: Puerto Rico's Legal Status Reconsidered†). Puerto Rican citizens somehow manage to carry a dual citizenship with the United States under this murky legal loophole which does not allow us to elect American officials if I elect to continue living in Puerto Rico. However, the minute I step onto U.S. soil, I become an American citizen with the right to help elect officials to the local, state, and national levels of political office. We are uniquely American in citizenship, and yet still un-American in governance, culture, and tradition. Without U.S. citizenship and recognition as a U.S. territory, Puerto Rico the economy of Puerto Rico will not manage to survive. My research has shown that as a territory, we do not pay U.S. taxes and yet offer investment opportunities to Americans in the mainland under a tax-free status. Our status as a commonwealth has not protected the country against foreign debt. Rather, we

Monday, August 26, 2019

Rusume workshop Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Rusume workshop - Essay Example This shows a lack of work ethic and dedication, and these are two traits that are needed for almost every job. One thing that I did learn about the layout of a resume is that volunteering or internships can be included under professional development. I would have thought that only paid work could go here because that is what employers want to see; however, any type of work at all can be helpful because it shows experience and also a willingness to learn and try new things. It was very good for me to see an example of a resume because then I had the chance to compare it to my own one. I did create a resume a couple of years ago, but I have not updated and there is more information that I could now add. The thing that impressed me with this resume example was that everything was neat and tidy and in order. It was very easy to read because there was a flow to it. I think that employers like this because they often have so many resumes to read when they are hiring someone for the job. On ly the necessary information is included in the resume because otherwise it would take too long to read and the employer would not be interested. I can use this for my own resume by getting rid of information that is not really helpful to my cause and only include things that will help me get accepted for the job I am applying for. Something I learned from this part of the workshop was that the resume should try to include as much information as possible that relates to the job being applied for because this will help the employer to see what you are really good at. This is also why the bullet points under each job and/or internship are really important because the employer cannot gather very much from just reading about a workplace or job title; they need to see some of the job tasks that were involved because it will show what I am capable at. However, these bullet points should not be too long and they should not include information that is obvious. Some job titles have the same types of tasks, so there is no real need to mention them twice. The accomplishments should make you stand out from the rest of the applicants by showing some kind of special talent or skill. Also, the number of bullet points should be at least two and no more than four. I have been guilty of going against this rule in the past by including more than four bullet points and sometimes even up to six or seven. Having too many bullet points can get boring and make the resume longer than it needs to be, so I need to remember to be concise and even group some tasks together in one bullet point so as to keep content to a bare minimum. I learned that bullet points need to be positive. Also, they should be very impressive by playing up the tasks and skills that I have gained. There is no need to lie about something, but it is important to paint myself in the best light possible. The best way to do this is by including great detail about my accomplishments and showing that I am a capable worke r. Although the resume is important for gaining a job, I actually learned that the interview process is more important because it gives the employer a chance to assess my capabilities. Some of the tips were obvious, such as good conversation skills, strong body language, and also knowing the resume really well. I did not realize how important some of these things were, and I know that I could improve on them. A job interview is a formal occasion, but it is also a test to see if I

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Medical anthropology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Medical anthropology - Essay Example st, and the author of ‘Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor’, (Farmer 4) displayed a corresponding between medical anthropology with that of the stories of his personal past. Farmer believes that listening forms the work we normally do. He sharpened his listening skills, which get used in anthropology on an ethnographic context, when his first night at an emergency room, noticing that many slight cases were brought in just because people had no other opening for treatment (Farmer 73). Also, being a good listener helped Farmer to understand the complete effect of a 1981 slavery process concerning migrant workers in Florida (Farmer 29). It was the same skill of listening that helped Farmer understand and tell the story of Haiti’s, and also understand the intricate network that exists between privation and privilege (Farmer 302). Just as the line between primary care and medical anthropology is often indistinct, the â€Å"bracing connection between privation and privilege† becomes even more ostensible the longer one devotes studying both extremes (Farmer 354). While at first, the part of anthropology that divides the structures of violence appears isolated from medical anthropology, these structures of violence introduce the vast inequalities that make medicine to seem inaccessible. Structural violence results to a system in which victims are blamed, endowing those who suppress the victims while inhibiting victim’s access to healthcare. Farmer’s speech could have been unforeseen in its biographical content, but perhaps the key point is that the connection between anthropology and medicine can be viewed not as a single fact but a line that goes the full length on each of these disciplines. It is with listening, understanding privation and privilege (Farmer 82), and avoiding violence, that the future medical anthropologists will bridge the gap between practical medicine and social

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Shirin Neshat's Photography Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Shirin Neshat's Photography - Essay Example Yet women in the Muslim community are denied of the equal rights in various aspects of personal and social life, including in the mosque and in other public places. Among the very few Muslim artists who portray the status of Muslim women, Shirin Neshat through her works can be considered to play a major role since most of her creation clearly depicts the religious forces that shape the identity of Muslim women all throughout the world. The status of the women in the Islamic community is under increasing scrutiny (in the positive direction) today by both the progressive Muslims and the non-Muslim societies. At such point of time, Shirin Neshat’s depiction of the Islamic women, their collective strength and the persistence with regards to the misogyny and despotism has a considerable impact, and it also synchronizes with the views of the many sections of people regarding the empowerment and upliftment of the Muslim women. â€Å"For Neshat presents a picture more accurately repr esentative of Iranian and Islamic diversity and dissent against state and religious despotism.† (Denson 2010). She was well known to the world through her Women of Allah creations which she produced between the years 1994-1998. The photographs of Muslim women in her Women of Allah series were very much proactive, mysterious and politically iconic unlike the traditional Muslim women. The images were photographed in such a way that some of the Muslim women were in chadors holding guns, some others covering their skin with the Persian script, etc. These pictures mainly depicted the persistence and the determination of the Iranian Muslim women who confronted the Sharia’s law, mainly with regards to the Hijab and also as a tool against the segregation of women from men in the mosques and other public places. Thus the overall perspective that can be understood from her Women of Allah series would that the Muslim women were made to wear the veil or the Chadors just to be discr iminated from men in the mosques and in other public places. â€Å"Most importantly, she does not, however, apply any moral stance to hijab. She allows the viewers to reach their own conclusions and, by doing so, she indicates the constructed nature of identity so often utilized by various media and politicians.† (Machowski). Thus she interjects her work by revealing the concept that the traditional Muslim people consider the Hijab as the protection to the Muslim women from the external world, unlike in the modern trend where it is viewed as medieval and severe. . In her photographs, Neshat analyses the different sides of the women in the Muslim community and incorporates them in her works. Moreover it is obvious from her photographs, she resisted the stereotypical representation of Muslim women in the Islam community. She insisted the importance of women in a Muslim community in her artwork named A Mother, in which she portrayed the image of mother with a son where she revea led the concept of woman being the mother of entire nation. From the above analysis, it is clear that she portrays the fact that every Muslim woman is an integral part of the entire Islam community where they need to be recognized in legal, political and social aspects. Thus Shirin Neshat believed that without the effective outcome and efficient

Friday, August 23, 2019

Development vs Poverty and Hunger as a Result of Globalization Coursework

Development vs Poverty and Hunger as a Result of Globalization - Coursework Example Different societies have been impacted in different ways and magnitudes by the results of globalization (MSN 1). This paper will highlight the contributions and impacts of globalization with regards to development, poverty, and hunger.In presenting the first argument, it is true that for the modern world, globalization has been credited with economic growth. This has been achieved by the way it has liberalized trade in a manner capable of benefiting both developed and developing countries (Wells, Shuey, & Kiely 31). Through it, there have been innovations in services and goods because of the competitive and open nature of the global market. Countries select their trading partners based on which one has an advantage of production, which results in consumers getting cheaper services and goods (Dean & Ritzer 9). This development has enabled some countries from the third world to grow into first world status.However, even with the above positive aspects, globalization has been a widely c ontroversial issue (Hamilton 16). This forms the basis of the second argument. Although it has allowed countries to economically develop and improve standards of lives, challenges of globalization made up of anti-poverty campaigners, environmentalists and trade unionists claim free markets have only been reaping gains for Western multinational corporations. By joining a worldwide economy, the less developed countries expose themselves to external economic factors over which they command little or no control. Their diluted national sovereignty renders management of macroeconomics a challenging task, with a decline in their abilities to increase corporation taxation (Friedman 351). Furthermore, while developed countries gain, developing ones suffer when the demand for labor in the first word increases. This leads to diminishing labor forces locally and, ultimately, poverty. Therefore, globalization strengthens positions of developed economies capable of taking advantage of free market s but increases poverty levels of struggling economies.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Thesis statement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

Thesis statement - Essay Example Some employees may require master’s degree in economics or management, knowledge of accounting. Good skills in the field of mathematics and statistics are essential to get the position of business operation manager. Furthermore, the program in administration and management includes leadership skills course. Advanced programs may be oriented on the work in one particular industry. If a specialist wants to have benefits in the labor market he/she may apply for the certification like Certified Manager. Such specialists are valued very high and usually get the desired positions. The work will investigate the field of operation management, the issues specialists face and the skills they should possess. The focus will be made on leadership skills and the skills of relationship building, which are very important in the field of professional management. It is necessary for business operation manager to know the consumer psychology and have good knowledge of organization

Bridgford Foods Essay Example for Free

Bridgford Foods Essay Bridgford Foods is known as a small, publicly traded company of the food industry. Clients of Bridgford Foods have a relatively high inherent risk. The operation of the said industry is subject to various risks, such as adverse changes in the general economic conditions, the evolution of consumer preferences, nutritional and health-related concerns, the inspections done, including the processing controls involved in the federal, state, and local products. The liability claims of consumer products and the risks associated with product tampering were also taken into careful consideration. Furthermore, several recalls made were associated with the recent outbreaks of illnesses among the meat and poultry products. Such greatly affected the operating results and the financial position of the company. In addition to this, industry characteristics were related to the factors that affected the assessment of materials of Bridgford Foods Corporation. Since the industry was very competitive, price cutting would have its related effects on the revenue. Unfortunately, Bridgford Foods was not part of the leading industries in the country. In terms of performance, the products of the said company were not as competitive as those of the leaders in the industry. In addition to this, the company is not as profitable and as financially stable as those of the major companies in the industry. For the year 2007, Bridgford Food had a decrease in its total sales, as compared to the other years. In a report issued, the company stated that, â€Å"sales for the first quarter ended in January 25, 2008, and was an estimated $1,319,000. Prior to the first twelve weeks of the fiscal year, there was a decrease in the total, which was 3.1%. The industry factors result in an increased assessment of the risk material misstatement of BridgFord Foods Corporation. This led to a lower determination of detection risk and more substantive tests. Estimations and assumptions were particularly important in the assessment of risks for material misstatement of Johnson, Inc. The management made certain estimations and assumptions that affected the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements. In addition to this, reported revenues and expenses during the respective reporting periods were also given much considerations. The amounts estimated related to liabilities for workers’ compensation, employee healthcare and pension benefits are especially subjected. The inherent risk relating to the accuracy of an account balance that involves a high degree of management judgment, or that is difficult to compute, is evaluated as high. Moreover, the credit risk of the company was diversified across a broad range clients and geographic regions. Losses incurred due to credit risks have recently been immaterial, with the client maintaining the cash balances at financial institutions. At times, these clients exceed the amounts insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation of $100 million per institution. However, the clients have significant amounts receivable amounts with few of the well known clients, although historically secure, could also be subject to material risk when the operations of these clients begin to deteriorate. Regardless of such dilemma, the members of the Bridgford family can still exercise significant control over the company. This is due to the fact that the family owns approximately 77% in stocks of the company, making them own more than three fourths of the whole company. On top of this, three members of the Bridgford family were members of the Board of Directors. This gives the members of the Bridgford family the ability to exert substantial influence and power over the management and affairs of the company. This include matters requiring the action of shareholders. the amendment to by-laws, the election and removal of directors, merger proposals, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of the assets and other corporate transactions. The Bridgford family members who own majority of the stocks dominate in the decision making of the company. This factor led to a higher risk assessment of material misstatement fore there were no reviews regarding important decisions and actions taken. However, these should be taken in the best interest of the company and its stockholders. The inherent limitations included the realities of faulty judgments and decision makings, including the breakdowns that can occur due to simple errors and mistakes. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some people, by collusion of two or more people, or by management override of the control. All the above factors increased inherent risk for a particular account balance assertion, making the evaluation relatively high. In the audit planning stage, where the evaluation of inherent risk for an account balance assertion is high, auditors regard this as a significant risk requiring special audit attention. The control risk of Bridgford foods is low. The client maintains and evaluates a system of internal accounting controls, and a program of internal auditing designed to provide reasonable assurance. In so doing, the company’s assets are protected and transactions were performed in accordance with the proper authorization, and were recorded accordingly. This system of internal accounting control is continually reviewed and modified in response to evolving business conditions and operations and to recommendations made by the independent registered public accounting firm and internal auditor. The client also has an established a code of conduct. Furthermore, the audit committee is composed of independent directors who are not officers or employees of the client, and do not have other relationships that impair independence. The audit committees also employ two financial experts. They are effective in overseeing the quality of controls and the management of fraud. From those mentioned, I believe that the accounting and internal control systems provide reasonable assurance that assets are safeguarded and financial information is reliable, with the overall control risk low. In general, the design and implementation of internal control are considered effective. The increase in the risk of material misstatement due to these factors will result in a lower determination of detection risk and an increase in the scope of the auditors work. Pre-audit engagement risk is significantly and positively associated with the estimated level of discretionary accruals reported in audited financial statements. As higher levels of discretionary accruals have been shown to be associated with higher risk of post-audit litigation, it appears that rather than taking actions that result in higher-risk clients reporting less aggressive discretionary accruals, auditors instead are accepting a higher post-audit risk for these clients.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Outsourcing in the Hotel Industry

Outsourcing in the Hotel Industry 1.1 Introduction Outsourcing is one of the growth industries of our time (Winterton 2000).   Today, the outsourcing of selected organisational activities is an integral part of corporate strategy (Lankford and Parsa 1999).   Outsourcing has become a significant facet of modern hotel management (Sieburg 1992).   Unfortunately there is shortage of prior research in the hospitality management literature concerning outsourcing or maintaining internally business processes in hotel sector. This paper seeks to present critical analysis of factors, varieties, aims and results of outsourcing within hotel industry. The first chapter will begin with stating the problem which is vital in hospitality industry.   It will then continue with the presentation of background literature and the purpose of study.   Thirdly, rationale will be explained. Subsequently research questions will be raised.   Furthermore a definition of terms will identify the key words within the study and how the writer defines them within it.   A number of limitations will indicate specific areas in which the research will not be definitive.   Finally a summary of the chapter will be provided indicating the main points discussed. 1.2 Statement of the Problem Historically as the kind of contractual relations and commercial activity outsourcing has appeared in 1962 when the successful businessman Ross Perro, whose firm EDS carried out calculations for banks, renting night time on mainframes, has brought  «General Motors » annual economy in 44 % more than 4 billion dollars (Nureev 2002).   Over the last few years, the idea of outsourcing noncore business functions has gained huge popularity (Winterton 2000).   Nowadays different types and forms of outsourcing are putting into practice and developing in various businesses. Tourism in its turn is a rapidly growing phenomenon and has become one of the largest industries in the world.   But also hospitality industry is very unique, and very sensitive to every internal and external changes.   And such innovation as outsourcing should have affect the industry in general and the development of hotel sector in particular. As it has been mentioned above, outsourcing within hotel industry has been the subject of minimal literature research.   And a question: whether outsourcing will work in hotels and make notable profit still opened for reasoning and conclusions.   And if yes or no, how it will be affected by financial crisis which came less than year ago.   Just that very case of crisis can cardinally change the relation of business to outsourcing.   After all in a crisis situation it is more important not tactical, but the strategic part of the business. In general, up to now the quantity of questions more than answers.   And it is very important to understand, why hotels outsource.   And what form for them is most attractive and far-sighted. 1.3 Background Literature According to Lankford and Parsa (1999), outsourcing is defined as the procurement of products or services from sources that are external to the organisation.   This leads to allowing outsiders to take responsibilities for some aspects of financial management (Winterton 2000).   After definition and explanation of previous authors, it is possible to say that outsourcing is something similar to service and support services though it is differs essentially from them.   It is not short-term service, on once, given by one company to another.   Outsourcing gives longer support, not single.   Outsourcing is transfer of certain processes or functions from one company to another.   The Company recipient should specialise in this branch.   From here it is possible to create one of outsourcings principles:  «I leave to myself only that I can do better than others, I give to the external executor that it does better than others ».   Other principles and the most practical ty pes and forms of outsourcing will be considered in second chapter. Outsourcing has become an important strategic tool in todays competitive business environment (Zhu, Hsu and Lillie 2001).   As any tool of business it has its own advantages and disadvantages. Outsourcing offers several advantages, such as enabling existing staff to concentrate on core activities on organisational specialisations, focusing on achieving key strategic objectives, lowering or stabilising overhead costs, and thereby gaining cost advantage over the competition, providing flexibility in response to changing market conditions, and reducing investment in high technology (Kliem, 1999; Quinn 1999 cited Kakabadse, N. and Kakabadse, A. 2000).   Thus it is possible to ear-mark three big advantages of outsourcing in general, not only for hotels and hospitality industry.   The first advantage outsourcing allows to pay almost all attention and resources to the core direction of the business and to charge to foreign company noncore functions.   Thereby, company will have competitive advantage.   Also redistribution and optimisation of human resources of the company will be possible.   The second advantage is decreasing of material input.   Very often attractio ns of the foreign executor essentially cheaper than the maintenance of own department for execution of certain job.   It is caused by lower price cost of outsourcers job since the chosen direction is its specific specialisation.   And the third advantage using outsourcing, companies can get technologies and the decisions of higher quality level which might be absent at the organisation.   Besides this there is a possibility of using specialised functions which only experts can perform.   Also it is important to remember about transfer of all responsibilities of the assigned functions to outsourcer. But besides these pluses there are also some disadvantages of outsourcing.   Schniederjans and Zuckweiler (2004) introduce very helpful summary of those.   They suggested that it is possible to divide this lacks in four groups: Managerial implications. Such as loss of control over critical functions and suppliers. Financial implications. Such as failure to realise cost savings. Operational implications. Such as dependence on suppliers and responsibility for quality of their work. Human resource implications.   Such as lower morale of permanent employees. Thus after confrontation these disadvantages and meaning of the process it is possible to ear-mark one of the most important shortcoming of outsourcing.   It is possible to criticise it for loss of workplaces.   As the result of such process, the company can release many workplaces, replacing the in-house workers with more professional (or cheaper) from other company.   As the result of this, first of all, workers are getting in the worst position because very often there is no labour contract or any guarantees about their future job between them and the employer. Remembering all the minuses, lacks and disadvantages but aspiring to benefits, pluses and advantages of outsourcing hotels should understand the reasons, right time and business situation when to outsource.   According to William and Faramanz (1999), firms should consider outsourcing when it is believed that certain support functions can be completed faster, cheaper, or better by an outside organisation.   Tasks that are not core competencies of the hotel human resources, payroll and benefits, information systems, even food service are ripe for being contracted out.   Moreover, Blake (1997) gave three main reasons for organisations for turning to outsourcing: Where others do it better To focus on their core business To reduce their cost base. Therefore the hotels should use outsourcing to concentrate on the primary activity, instead of to be engaged in management of dining rooms, cleaners or catching of computer viruses.   Another factor to exploit the outsourcing within hotel industry is the situation when the external provider of services is capable to provide economy and/or higher level of services because of specialisation or cheaper labour.   Outsourcing can help to save resources of the hotel. One more not very visible objective to use outsourcing within hotels is to study from the service provider. Consequently, Milgrom and Roberts (1992 cited Lamminmaki 2005) said that understanding hotels motivation for outsourcing is important, as organisation is as important as technology, cost, and demand in determining success. To conclude this part of the chapter, it is useful to remember statement of Kotler (1988): â€Å"Entrust others that what they will make easier and more cheaply†. 1.4 Purpose of Study The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence on hotel sector for outsourcing or maintaining internally business processes.   By analysing existing studies related to outsourcing in general, it can be valuable in applying to the outsourcing within hotel sector where there is little research.   In additional, there are few management accounting studies concerned with the hotel sector (Collier and Gregory 1995).   Furthermore, the research will evaluate advantages and disadvantages of using outsourcing for hotels.   This study will critically assess the innovative part of outsourcing for hotels and what type and form of internal business processes is going to be more successful for them. Specifically, literature will be within the hospitality sector.   Moreover, how will outsourcing affect costumers and their needs will be analysed. Finally, based on the findings of the study, solutions for the hotel sector will be provided. 1.5 Rationale This research is about outsourcing or internal business processes within hotel industry.   And it is significant for several reasons: Hospitality industry is one of the fastest developing industries.   And In many countries, tourism industry is the leading industry, which stimulates development of other sectors. Outsourcing relatively new business idea but it has been used already in numerous sectors of economy including hospitality. Using outsourcing or internal business processes hotels can cut their production cost. There is a high potential to improve quality of hotels services. Most of the hotels have to find some new ideas for their development and reduction of risks during the financial crisis period.   And outsourcing could be one of them. 1.6 Research Questions This study aim is to answer following Research Questions: What is considered ‘outsourcing process within the hotel sector? To begin with, it is vital for the research to explain and to make it clearer, what is outsourcing in todays economy.   Also it is important to elucidate if this term is innovative method for the business or it is just a new expression of existing already processes within hotel sector. What are the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing for hotel sector? As any type of business relationship, outsourcing should have not only advantages and positive moments but also disadvantages and obstacles.   To be more objective, it is vital to compare both to be able to make a conclusion whether outsourcing is a big opportunity for the hotels or it will bring more difficulties rather than profitability. In addition, it is significant to understand the specific type of action of outsourcing within hotels and its the most widespread forms What are the factors for outsourcing or maintaining internally business processes within hotel sector? Internal and external factors of using outsourcing for the hotels will be examined.   And the research will emphasise specific reasons of starting using outsourcing within hotel industry.   Moreover, ‘financial crisis as one of the factors will be discussed. What are the main aims of outsourcing within hotel sector? And last but not least, it will be achievable to acquire the main aims and results of outsourcing within hotel sector.   Additionally, after analysing the interview and questionnaires, preferred types and the specific benefits from outsourcing for the hotels will be seen. 1.7 Definition of Terms Core business: Core business means the commercial activity from which the company derives most of its profits (www.resourceconservation.mb.ca).   According to Alexander and Yong (1996), there are four main points to define ‘core activities: Activities which traditionally performed in-house; Activities which critical to business performance; Activities which create current or potential competitive advantage; Activities which will drive further growth, innovation, or rejuvenation. Financial Crisis: There is no precise definition of financial crisis, but a common view is that disruptions in financial markets rise to the level of a crisis when the flow of credit to households and businesses is constrained and the real economy of goods and services is adversely affected (opencrs.com). Hotel Sector: Outsourcer:The service provider (outsourcer) is responsible for delivering the contracted services, resolving day-to-day operational problems and managing the request and implementation of routine changes in accordance with the framework of contracts, standards (Kent 1998). Outsourcing: Greaver (1999) defined outsourcing as the act of transferring some of an organizations recurring internal activities and decision rights to outside providers, as set forth in a contract.   Later Beaumont and Sohal (2004) explained outsourcing as having work that was formerly done inside the organisation performed by an external organisation.   The vendor (hereafter the outsourcer and outsource are, respectively, referred to as vendor and client) may be an independent entity or a wholly owned subsidiary. 1.7 Limitations This study will limit itself to surveying and interviewing hotels only from two countries Greece and Russia and most probably will not represent the complete situation of European hotel industry as well as worldwide hotel industry.   Moreover it will not represent the whole situation even in both chosen countries for the reason that researcher sampled only those who have agreed to be sampled. The convenience sampling procedure decreases the generalisation of findings.   This study cannot be generalised to populations but may relate to other defined contexts with caution. For the purpose of this study the mixed approach was used, which include utilisation of both quantitative and qualitative data analysis which are always connected with sensibility, reliability and validity.   But on the other hand it has also its advantages such as expansion and collaboration. Furthermore, this study will concentrate on outsourcing within hotel sector, but at the same time there may be other factors that influence and affect business processes in the hotels. 1.9 Summary This chapter has introduced the thesis by outlining the topic of this study, the statement of the problem, background literature, purpose of this study, its rationale, presented research questions, definition of the terms and limitations of the study. In this first chapter the studys main focus was identified as examining and understanding the importance of outsourcing within hotel sector.   A critical examination of meaning of outsourcing, its advantages and disadvantages should be able to assist in determining how the hotel industry can be affected or altered by using outsourcing process.   Finally, this study would determine reasons and forms of outsourcing which are the most recent, available and useful within hotel sector. Afterward, Chapter Two will discuss the theoretical framework and conceptual models of factors for outsourcing or maintaining internally business processes within hotel sector.   The analysis will be connected with four Research Questions.   Finally, next chapter will classify particular insufficiencies in the literature leading to the need of the present study. Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.1 Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to critically analyse the existing literature on outsourcing or maintaining internally business processes within hotel sector.   Based on the research questions discussed in the first chapter of the given study, four general areas have been established.   More specifically this chapter will begin with a general description of related texts and then gradually concentrate on the precise areas in which the study has a focus on. The studies in the four major areas provided the theoretical foundation for the research conducted in this study.   The areas are: Consideration and explanation of outsourcing processes within the hotel industry.   This area relates to Research Question #1 What is considered ‘outsourcing process within the hotel sector? Advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing for the hotel industry.   This area relates to Research Question #2 What are the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing for hotel sector? Factors and motives of using outsourcing processes within hotel industry.   This area relates to Research Question #3 What are the factors for outsourcing or maintaining internally business processes within hotel sector? Aims and results of outsourcing for hotel sector. This area relates to Research Question #4 What are the main aims of outsourcing within hotel sector? The general areas were supported by the literature are all directly related to this study.   The purpose of the literature review for the author was to obtain a greater understanding and depth of knowledge by having critically analysed all areas pertaining to the Research Questions.These Research Questions are achievable as the researcher has a close and continual contact with the industry and has sufficient access to the information in numerous hotels in Greece and Russia. 2.2 Review of General Area I: Consideration and explanation of outsourcing processes within the hotel industryThis section provides the theoretical framework for Research Question # 1. The hotel industry is one of the formidable business in the world but it does not mean that they are strict in incorporating business strategies in their business (http://www.outsourcing-weblog.com).   Also, according to Burgess (2007), financial controllers in their turn consider that departmental and general managers do not have enough business skills and finance skills in particular to optimise costs and revenues and hence maintain profits.   Thus outsourcing practice might be a very useful and successful way in order to help owners of the hotels nowadays as well as in future. According to Kakabadse, N. and Kakabadse, A. (2000), outsourcing practice dates back to eighteenth-century England and has been in continuous use in numerous industry sectors.   However, the term ‘outsourcing English neologism has appeared in the American explanatory dictionaries only in the beginning of 80th (Ostrovsy 2009).   Since then this expression is strongly located in a business lexicon of the majority of the world languages.   Traditionally, outsourcing has concentrated on activities which are remote from the heart or nerve centre of the company (Brown 1997). Greaver (1999) defined outsourcing as the act of transferring some of an organisations recurring internal activities and decision rights to outside providers, as set forth in a contract.   Consequently, outsourcing it is one of interaction form between two organisations which is determined by the contract.   And following this contracts experts of one company accomplish duties of other company. ‘Out-sourcing — can be understood as ‘use of anothers resources.   Moreover, according to Lankford and Parsa (1999) outsourcing is defined as the procurement of products or services from sources that are external to the organisation.   In other words outsourcing is a transfer of some functions of the organisation to external highly skilled executors — outsourcers.   Also it is refusal of own business process, and acquisition of services in realisation of this business process at specialised organisation. For the hotels outsourcing is a transfer to the external contractor of some business functions or parts of business processes of the company.   The contractor (outsourcer) adapts his universal means and knowledge, considering this specific business of the customer, and uses them in interests of the customer for payment, more often defined in the cost of services, instead of shares of profit. According to Beaumont and Sohal (2004), wide variety of business process is now outsourced.   The use of outsourcing is becoming more sophisticated; more organisations are outsourcing responsibility for business processes.   Glickman et al. (2007) in his turn noted that outsourcing is becoming more widely accepted and the argument for outsourcing versus in-house operations is gaining more support.   As a result Beaumont and Sohal (2004) confirmed that today outsourcing is a fashionable management technique. Hence, it is possible to mention that the outsourcing market endures rapid growth.   The growing demand and supply mutually accelerate each other.   Specialised outsourcing companies of cleaning and service of hotels are developing.   Outsourcing leads to growth of some professions for hotel sector.   More often, it is either low paid and not enough prestigious jobs (such as tidying and cleaning), or very specialised trades where maintenance of necessary professional level of employees or their work-load for the organisation is problematic (an example can be service of computer systems and IT). Consequently, as Glickman et al. (2007) stated, outsourcing has become a widely accepted practice that provides substantial cost-saving benefits for different organisations in general and hotels particular.   And hotels will always outsource some activities (the supply of water and electricity) but insource others (Beaumont and Sohal 2004). Therefore, there is a question: what kind of activities should hotels outsource key business processes or non-core functions? As outsourcing is a means of improving the performance of the company (Brown 1997).   And the overlay supplier is providing financial expertise which is difficult and expensive to create within a corporate treasury. The overlay provider, by offering the expertise to a broad range of clients, is able to provide it to each client at a lower cost than it would be for them to create their own capability (Winterton 2000).   Today outsourcing is considered as the business technology which is transferring to outsourcing companies processes and functions from the in-house business and hence, it is possible to make a conclusion, responsibility for result of performance of these processes as well.   So, for how big can be this shifting off responsibility for the hotel sector? The majority of authors consider that core activities should stay in-house, whilst non-core activities can be outsourced, in order to preserve core competencies (Prahalad and Hamel 1990, Bettis et al. 1992, Lacity et al. 1995, Quinn and Hilmer 1994, Rothery and Robertson 1995, Kelley 1995, Peisch 1995, Mullin 1996 cited Kakabadse, N. and Kakabadse, A. 2000).   From here it is possible to draw a conclusion that the sense of outsourcing comes to the simple formula: to concentrate all resources to that kind of activity which is the core for the company, and to transfer the other (supporting, accompanying) functions to the reliable and professional partner. But Struebing, (1996) argued that especially relevant is the outsourcing of key business processes and financial functions.   Nevertheless, Lankford and Parsa (1999) in their turn stated that focus on core business activities, companies can no longer assume that all organisational services must be provided and managed internally.   Competitive advantage may be gained when products or services are produced more effectively and efficiently by outside suppliers.   Thus, outsourcing is a direct transfer of non-core business processes of the company to the external organisation outsourcer, for their further performance within the limits of the signed contract.   And there may be big benefit for the company if transferred business processes are the exact specialisation of outsourcer. Consequently, outsourcing is management strategy because of which hotels can optimise in-house processes and, without distracting on minor functions, completely concentrate on core activities.   As a matter of fact outsourcing is attraction of external sources with the purpose of the decision of internal problems of the hotel.   Outsourcing can also be characterised, as the sale to hotels services for maintenance of their activity, i.e. outsourcer can take on the balance almost all non-core activities of the hotel.   As a result of that the client can give all his time only to the core business, thus occurs minimisation of risks concerning to not profile kinds of activities (a corporate meal, IT-service, transportation service, installation works, cleaning etc.). In hotels, outsourcing has been used for many years for some operational tasks such as cleaning, but only recently (Cline and Warner 2001, Lamminmaki 2006 cited Burgess 2007), has been considered for accounting, following the example of other industries (Burgess 2007). Holiday Inn for instance created its hotel reservations business as a separate entity based on its relationship with IBMs ISSC to serve the entire hotel and hospitality market (Venkatraman, 1997). Other examples of outsourcing within hotel sector could be: cleaning, laundry service, human resource management, employees meal, IT-service and support, marketing, statistics, security service, creating web-sites, organisation of celebrating and conferences via an event company and many others which are not core competences of business, and could very easily and more economically be contracted out to service companies (Winterton 2000). Nevertheless, according to Lamminmaki (2006), an activity will tend not to be outsourced if it results in a subcontractor being placed in a position enabling it to (wittingly or otherwise) inflict damage on the reputation of the hotels business. Now it is an appropriate and good point to understand how innovative the outsourcing model is.   In general, outsourcing is just the variety of cooperation. Outsourcing of the hotel activities is definitely not a new phenomenon.   In 1963, for example, Storey (2001 cited Glickman et al. 2007) examined outsourcing in the military (Glickman et al. 2007). From the previous part of the chapter it is possible to mention that benefit of outsourcing consists in more quality and less spend of accomplishment of the transferred function.   Higher quality explained by availability of highly paid professionals who have a wide experience in the given problematic.   As outsourcer has big amount of works in the specific sphere, he has a possibility to receive solid experience and on its basis to create various workings out for completing the transferred function.   When the work is outsourced, the overlay traders are immersed in the market (Winterton 2000).   Outsourcer is engaged in this sphere, and not for only one company.   Hence, professional specialisation is taking place.   And as a result expenses decrease and accordingly, the effect of accumulation begins: the bigger and better specialisation the easier management, easier management cheaper the whole process.   Moreover, Glickman (et al. 2007) noted that outsourcers who p rovide the same functions to a number of different hotels are able to purchase larger quantities at lower prices.   Thus, expenses become lower using outsourcing, than at independent accomplishing of matching function. On the other hand one of the biggest problems of this statement is that using by the hotel highly paid professionals will not allow to achieve this with small money.   And it is really not so easy to operate this process.   So actually, what kind of innovation is here?   There were always contract and subcontract works, there was a specialisation of both workers and enterprises, there was a strict selection of suppliers.   And can it be differently with modern development of techniques and business?   The settled word ‘outsourcing goes today as a new method of work.   And this word has become extremely useful. Also, it is relevant to know what place outsourcing takes in the quality management.   In standards ISO series 9000:2001 (http://ds1.twirpx.com) this word (not even this but only the verb) ‘outsource has been found by researcher just once in point 4.1.   That is why it is especially appropriate to remember the statement of Lonsdale and Cox (2000) with the note that it is some kind of substitute for the once fashionable enthusiasms for conglomeration, horizontal integration, vertical integration, and internal integration. Consequently, considering outsourcing as the business phenomenon of the modern world, it is possible to allocate its pluses and minuses.   Also it is possible to separate core services and to understand, by what principles they work and what bring as a result to the hotels: benefit or losses.   In addition, it is possible to analyse a situation of loosing work places because of outsourcing processes within the hotel sector, increasing percent of unemployment or, on the contrary, allows hotels to develop and grow faster, increasing their weight in the market. 2.3 Review of General Area II: Advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing for the hotel industry This section provides the theoretical framework for Research Question # 2. According to Beaumont and Sohal (2004), outsourcing is used because it supposedly advantages the organisation.   The advantages and disadvantages can be categorized as strategic or tactical, long-term or short-term, and tangible or intangible. The advantages in outsourcing can be operational, strategic, or both.   Operational advantages usually provide for short-term trouble avoidance, while strategic advantages offer long-term contributions in maximizing opportunities (Lankford and Parsa 1999).   When services are outsourced, it may become easier to handle problem situations because it is possible to go straight to the provider and have them work out the problem instead of having to figure out what went wrong internally (Glickman et al. 2007). For hotels, benefits are substantial: reduced costs, expanded services and expertise, improved employee productivity and morale, and a more positive corporate image (Lankford and Parsa 1999).   Moreover, the hotel does not enlarge staff, removes from itself cares on personnel recruiting, and saves on social taxes.   At the same time if hotel organise his processes in correct way, quality of work of the personnel remains high.   Also hotels can leave taxes, administrative costs, worries about replacing equipment, warehousing, maintenance,

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Relationship Between Face Preference and Own Characteristics

Relationship Between Face Preference and Own Characteristics Joseph Jordan Studies in Psychology In the article, Mate Choice, Mate Preference, and Biological Market: the Relationship between Partner Choice and Health Preference is modulated by Women’s Own Attractiveness, the authors question the correlation between partner preference, and partner choice. The authors address that there are many studies where the subjects analyze which person or face they deem is attractive, but what they wanted to know is if their choices in partners matched that of what they would prefer. They began to ask this question after realizing that there was not a lot of studies on this subject and on those few studies that there are the conclusions were mixed and contradictory. Through those few studies the authors were able to hypothesize that there are some discrepancies between partner preference and partner choice, and that the more of a high-market person you are the more likely your preference will match you actual partner choice. For this hypothesis, they would test whether the relationship between participant’s face preference and mate choice is modulated by their own market value, as opposed to high-market valued individuals can usually get their preferred partner. The participants that they used in this study was fifty one heterosexual couples with ages ranging from 18-35. They then constructed the stimuli, or the pictures that the subjects would be looking at to judge which faces were healthier than the other. They did this by collecting images of 50 white males and 50 white females. In these photos, their faces were the main focus, so their hair was unobstructed and their clothing and body from the neck down was photo-shoped out of the image. They then had 100 heterosexual men, and 100 heterosexual women rate the 50 images of the men’s appearance on a scale of 1-7 (1 being much unhealthier than average, and 7 being much healthier than average. They then got a completely different 100 hetero sexual men and 100 heterosexual women to rate the 50 women pictures on the same scale. The experimenters then took the top 15 rated healthy men pictures, and the bottom 15 rated least healthy pictures. With that information they constructed a prototype face with completely neutral features. They then at random selected 10 pictures of the men out of the original 50, and they did the same with the women. From this they constructed faces that would be seen as the healthiest, and photos that would be seen as the least healthy. Then the 51 couples of the main experiment were asked to rate those photos on the same scale of 1-7. The 51 couples were also asked to have their photo taken under the same consistencies of the photos used previously in the experiment. The experimenters then acquired 40 more participants, who have not participated in the experiment previously, to rate the photos of the men and women from the 51 couples on the same 1-7 scale. With this information, the experimenter s compared what the couples preferred as a partner and what they actually chose as a partner, based off of how the 40 volunteers rated the faces of the couples. After comparing this data they came up with their results, and their conclusion. This was their conclusion from the study, â€Å"The results of the current study suggest that the extent to which mate preferences predict actual partner choice can depend, in part, on own market value, at least among women. More fundamentally, our data demonstrate the utility of considering biological market theories not only for our understanding of mate preferences or mate choice, but also for our understanding of the relationship between preference and choice.† In more lamens terms, the more attractive you are, or the more â€Å"high-market† of a person you are, and the more likely you are to choose a partner who actually matches your actual preference. This is much more prevalent in women, and can be explained due to the fact that the market for partners is limited, and it is mutual; the partner that you actually choose has to be mutually attracted to you who might not be the same as person as you would prefer. In another article, Are Smiles a Sign of Happiness? Spontaneous expressions of Judo winners, the authors were searching for whether smiling was an effect on emotion, or sociality. They wanted to find out if smiling was really due to pure joy, or was it just an act that people do in a social environment to try and tell people that they are happy. To dig out this answer, the experimenters/ authors had to first ask, when do people smile? Through earlier research on this topic the experimenters were able to conclude that there were two types of smiles: FEP smiles or Duchenne smiles were smiles that were due to pure emotional happiness, while BET smiles were more complicated, and could be due to emotion or due to social interaction. With BET smiles a person could fake a FEP smile or even hide one due to the sociality of the situation. They also took into account other older experiments, especially an experiment where they studied when Olympic medalists smiled. They found that when the Oly mpian was on stage or receiving the medal, they smiled 70% of the time, while when they were behind the stage or away from people they only smiled 7% of the time. With these past experiments in their mind the experimenters wanted to take a further look into this using a new and improved method to get a more definitive answer to the cause of smiles. For their experiment the testers would observe the facial expressions of Judo fighters at the 2010 National Spanish Judo Championship. Their test field consisted of 55 judo fighters who one their fights and whose faces were closely monitored by video tape. On top of the fighters being videotaped they were also asked to fill out a likert scale (0 being none at all, while 7 being very much). They would then try and correlate the exact frame of their peak happiness and observe their facial expression. They did the same procedure with international fighters, and they then counted the amount of Ducheene or FEP smiles from the winners. After tallying up all of the smiles they came up with their results and their conclusion. They found accounted for 33 smiles coming from the medal winners of the judo tournament, but they also found that 31 out of 33 of those smiles came while the fighters were engaged in some sort of social interaction. They also found that the fighter was much more likely to display a smiling face the more numerous and the more enthusiastic a crowd was. Through these results they concluded that happiness does not necessarily predict smiles. When comparing the fighter’s likert scale, when the fighters were actually the happiest, they were not smiling at all, rather they had their heads down with their mouths slightly agape. Smiles are mostly just a communicative response to tell people that we are happy, as opposed to a pure reaction of happiness. What the experimenters came to decide was that their tests were in much support of BET smiles, saying that smiles are determined more by the sociality of the situation. People will sometimes hide their smiles, or they will create smiles based off of what feels appropriate for that social situation. In another article, Hormonal and Morphological of Women’s Body Attractiveness, the experimenters are trying to figure out if a women’s attractiveness of her body correlates to her ability to reproduce. There are certain things that men are attracted to like a low hip to waist ratio, with larger sized breasts. This has been proposed to promote a healthy women, due to healthy fat deposits that help along baby brain develop while it is in the womb. There have also been contradictory findings from third world countries where men are more attracted to heavier set women. This suggests that a low hip to wait ratio may not be an evolutionary attractiveness, rather a molding of what men see as attractive through manipulation of western media. The experimenters wanted to get a more definitive answer to this question, so they were to measure chemical hormonal levels that promoted fertility and compared it to their apparent attractiveness. With a volunteer group of 33 women they had them self-collect saliva samples for an about a period of 1-2 menstrual cycles. All of these women were also photographed from head to toe in neutral clothing and in a neutral environment. The women were as well required to come in for four sessions during their menstrual cycles to do a number of various tests. Anthropometric samples were taken from the women, and their body mass index and their breast size were also measured. Their hip to weight ratios were measured from the photos that were taken from them, to keep from the discrepancies that could arise from the experimenter’s assistance performing the tests. Those photos were then taken an observed by 58 UCSB students, 31 of which were men, and 27 of them were female. The students were asked to give a rating of attractiveness on a scale of 1-7, 1 being the lowest and 7 being the highest. The raters were then asked to rate them using the same scale on a basis of long term attracti veness and short term attractiveness. The results had high agreeability, so the students seemed to agree on the level of the women’s attractiveness. The experimenters’ then cross examined the hormone levels, the breast size, and their hip to weight ratio with their rated attractiveness. With this comparison they were able to come up with reliable data, giving them the ability to come up with a conclusion. When comparing the hormone levels of women and their breast size, hip to weight ratio, and their Body Mass Index they found that there was no correlation between them. This goes against presumptions that were made by other people before this beginning of this experiment. A closer look at those results and they realized that the Body Mass Index had a huge impact on a women’s attractiveness. So in order to test for breast size, and hip to weight ratio, they then neutralized all of the women’s BMIs. After neutralizing the BMI the experimenters found that there was a strong correlation with women’s attractiveness and their hormone fertility levels. Since people viewed women with a high BMI so unattractive it masked the true results of the test. Once they neutralized the BMI’s they were able to come up with this conclusion: hormonal levels of estradiol and testosterone could confidently predict the apparent attractiveness of the women.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Essay --

1.0 Description on the selected organization: IKEA is one of the huge successful retailers in the world whereby has 280 stores in 26 countries by the year 2010 and had been visited by 580 million shoppers. IKEA has elegant designed products with low priced. IKEA’s sale has increased from 4.4 billion in 1994 to 23.5 billion in 2010. The author has attached the sales report in appendix 1 and 2. The founder was Ingvar Kamprad whereby he is still a dynamic advice-giver of IKEA despite his age reached 80. IKEA had influence worldwide market widely with a good strategic marketing tool. IKEA products are cheaper 30%-40% compare to other retailers. Besides that, Asian market convinced with their economical western product that has complete household products. In this chapter, the author had explained on the overall IKEA’s history. In the next chapter, had explained on four important macro elements followed by the macro elements effect towards the organization, and also given suggestions to manage the organization accordin g to the macro elements. Company Background Scott Allen (2014), stated Ingvar Kamprad formed IKEA in Sweden when he was 17 years old in year 1943. His company at first selling fish, christmas magazines, and seeds from the family farm then started selling matches whereby they bought 100 per lots and sold it individually by marking up the prices higher. Scott Allen (2014), stated the name IKEA means, I and K is Ingvar Kamprad initial, E is Elmtaryd which is family farmhouse and A is for Agunnaryd, the name of village where he came from that is located in Southern Sweden. Kamprad has also added ballpoint pens and sold them through mail order. His warehouse is small sheltered house located in their family farmhouse. He man... ...t and satisfactions. In addition, IKEA’s threats are poor understanding of cultural needs and demands. Economically, IKEA's growth had increased due to their low price furniture. The threats, are IKEA had failures to look into the quality of the product. Technologically, IKEA products able to standardized globally. Perhaps, to maintained IKEA's business they tried to stabilize their business with different angles such as stabilizing political status by maintaining good rapport and follow legalization rules all countries. IKEA has also use good method of approaching all the people and improve the performance of their services and products. Furthermore, the entrepreneurs good in assessing, planning and implementing accordingly in order to face any challenges. IKEA has able to accommodate the actual demand in the market towards new technology and younger generations.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

The Tall-Tale Heart Essay -- Literary Analysis, Allen Poe, Figurative

It is one’ o clock in the morning; you are exhausted and all you wish to do is sleep. Finally, when you are able to relax, close your eyes and begin to nod off, you hear a loud creak in the floor and you suddenly wake up to bad thoughts of what this mysterious noise is. In â€Å"The Tall-Tale Heart† by Edgar Allen Poe, various techniques are used to detail an old man’s uneasiness to the slightest of sounds at night as the narrator retells his murder of the old man. Since anyone in such situation would act similarly to the old man, his fear and anxiety is no surprise to the audience; however, with Poe’s use of figurative language, selection of details and diction the old man’s nervousness is aptly portrayed and characterized. The use of figurative language serves to compare what the narrator sees and hears to something more relatable for the reader. Poe uses several examples of similes and personifications, but only a few correlate to the well-being of the old man. As the narrator waits for the right moment to kill the old man, he notices the sound of the beating heart of the old man. Poe writes â€Å"†¦there came to my ears a low, dull, quick sound, such as a watch makes when enveloped in cotton,† to further explain in detail exactly what the narrator heard (line 50-1). The comparison between the beating heart and the muffled clock serves as an exaggeration of a racing heart during time of fear and over excitement. The swiftly beating heart also contributes to the trepidation that continues to become greater and greater in the old man, as demonstrated in Poe’s personification of â€Å"fears had been ever since growing upon him† (line 21-2). Another added factor to the old man’s fear is that the old man had been visited by Death, who... ....† The word â€Å"enveloped,† taken from the Old French word voloper meaning to wrap up, is defined as concealing something, it can be inferred that Death will take the life of the old man. But using â€Å"enveloped† as supposed to its synonym â€Å"surround† gives the action a scary feel to it. The use of diction is most important when defining the old man because without the right words to describe the situation, all meaning and purpose of the story is lost. This spine-chilling and sinister plot is only effective if Poe uses the appropriate and proper literary elements, which he has done. Poe is able to impact the reader and future readers to possibly think twice about mysterious and unusual noises heard in the night. Hopefully in the future, if ever you hear an eccentric noise when you sleep, you will remember the fate of the old man, and be wiser than he was.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

An Analysis of a “Modern” Sitcom

In his Sitcom: What It Is, How It Works, Richard F. Taflinger (1996)outlines not only what makes a television program comedic but more specifically what points to its being a situational comedy (or simply, sitcom). Examining a random sample of programs from 1950 to 1993, Taflinger identified three types of sitcom: actcom, domcom, and dramedy. But the scope of the studies were sitcoms that are now almost unknown to the modern viewers. Taking one of the most popular sitcoms of this generation – Friends – will Taflinger’s theories still hold water? Warner Bros. Television’s hit comedy show Friends started airing on 22 September 1994 and went on to span 10 seasons, ending only last 2004. The show has become sort of a cult following, which made big bucks not only for creators David Crane and Martha Kauffman, but also for the stars. (Internet Movie Database Inc., 2005) Being a sitcom, Friends is episodic in nature – meaning, there is a definite set of character, setting, and a plot for each episode (Taflinger, 1996). Friends fans have come to get acquainted with the six major characters in the series: Rachel Green (Jennifer Aniston), Monica Geller (Courtney Cox-Arquette), Phoebe Buffay (Lisa Kudrow), Joey Tribbiani (Matt LeBlanc), Chandler Bing (Matthew Perry), and Dr. Ross Geller (David Schwimmer). And in the ten years that fans have let the six friends into their living rooms, they have come to know each corner and nook of the characters’ apartment and their favorite hangout place, the Central Park Coffee Shop. (Internet Movie Database Inc., 2005) But unlike the sitcoms mentioned in Taflinger’s study, Friends does not strictly fall under the three sitcom categories named. In fact, this popular sitcom seesaws between being an actcom and a domcom. The series pretty much started as an actcom, with emphasis on the actions rather than the characterization. Parallel to Taflinger’s (1996) description of an actcom, the earlier series of Friends mostly featured Rachel, Monica, Phoebe, Joey, Chandler, and Ross as â€Å"shallow and superficial† and adhering to a certain societal stereotype. Phoebe was the ditzy, blonde female who always seems to be confused. Joey, who is her male counterpart, represents the struggling vainglorious actor. Releted essay –  An Empty Purse Frightens Away Friends Ross is the geek, Rachel the heartthrob, Monica the know-it-all, and Chandler the all-around typical American guy. During this time, most of the characters’ problems revolve around â€Å"mistakes, misunderstandings, attempts to influence the behavior of others, or unforeseen circumstances.† (Taflinger, 1996) Take for example Rachel’s realization that she likes Ross and, thinking that Ross likes her back (as touted by Chandler), she meets him at the airport only to be surprised that Ross arrived with a date named Janice. Also in line with actcoms, Friends’s situations during the first few seasons are complicated by â€Å"flaws in the plan to solve the problems.† (Taflinger, 1996) A classic example is episode 5 of Season 1, where Joey’s desire to have his ex-girlfriend Angela to break up with her boyfriend Bob led him to asking Monica to go on a double-date by lying that Angela and Bob are siblings. Yet as Friends progressed, it started to develop the characters more. We slowly saw changes in Rachel, Monica, Phoebe, Joey, Chandler, and Ross and their conflicts became more domestic. Around Season 7 and 8, the characters start to tackle dilemmas of a moral and emotional nature.   Most famous of these dilemmas is Joey eventually falling in love with Rachel. Creating a big story line in the show, this particular crisis creates a ‘moral’ dilemma for Joey – he wonders whether it’s right to love Rachel since she’s been with their friend Ross; and when Rachel also feels that’s she’s having emotions for Joey, she gripes about whether that emotion is right. Even with the evolution to a domcom, Friends still once in awhile go back to being an actcom. There will still be moments in latter seasons where Phoebe makes a really stupid comment or when Joey again proves to be self-centered. This occasional drift to actcom makes Friends a culmination of both the actcom and the domcom types of sitcoms. But even without a definite category, Friends is still undeniably a sitcom in that it meets the umbrella definition of what constitutes a sitcom’s plot, complication, and characterization: that they are deeply rooted – either by representation or by deviation – in idealized American middle-class (Taflinger, 1996). All the characters in Friends – save for some transient or guest stars – are of the middle class. Most of their dilemmas and problems are also typical of those in the same social status. Their decisions and actions are also based on how a typical middle-class American will act. Another element that makes the Warner Bros. Television series a sitcom is the sympathy evoked by each character. As Taflinger (1996) said, audience members identify with sitcom characters. The viewers are supposed to feel for what the character is going through and they almost always wish that the characters soon come to a resolution. Friends spanning into 10 seasons, with the last episode garnering an estimated 51.1 million viewers, plus the still constant clamor for the show to go back on air is a strong testament to the characters’ influence on viewers. It made such a big impact that people felt like Rachel, Monica, Phoebe, Joey, Chandler, and Ross are also their friends. (Internet Movie Database Inc., 2005) With the changing audience needs and wants, there is a need to redefine the types of sitcoms, calling for a combination of what makes one type click and eliminating what doesn’t. But what’s important is that sitcoms maintain their staple ingredients to become effective. Like Friends. Even with the deviation in the strict categorization of sitcoms, Friends still meet the very definition of what makes a situational comedy – middle-class American and sympathetic. REFERENCES Internet Movie Database Inc. (2005). â€Å"Friends† (1994). IMDb. Retrieved 20 October 2007, from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0108778/. Taflinger, Richard F. (1996, May 28). Sitcom: What It Is, How It Works. Retrieved 20 October 2007.