Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Quality tools Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Quality tools - Essay Example Thus, the check-in and the check-out processes should be smooth and genuinely welcoming, with all effort directed to make the guests feel at home. The Hotel Escargo chain has tried to present winning guidelines to their frontline guest registration staff about what they should do when registering guests. However, a room for improvement exists and it is important to analyze measurements for check-in, check-out and room change requests for the hotel. This brief write-up presents a discussion about application of quality tools to reception performance measurements for Hotel Escargo. This write-up presents a discussion about ways for improving the check-in and check-out system at Hotel Escargo. The mission statement of Hotel Escargo clearly presents values related to serving business and leisure travelers by making customer satisfaction highest priority and providing quality service, amenities, comfortable surroundings and friendly employees. However, a recent review undertaken at the Hotel Escargo chain indicated that amongst other improvements, it was possible to enhance the quality of the check-in and check-out systems implemented by the Rooms Division of Hotel Escargo. By improving procedures and interactions with guests, improved perceptions of service quality emerge and this results in improved customer satisfaction (Salvendy, 2001, Pp. 621 – 623) and (Bardi, 2007, Pp. 185 – 187). Thus, it makes sense to apply quality tools to the Hotel Escargo check-in and check-out system by collecting measurements for processing using quality tools. Appendix A presents the observations for front office operations at Hotel Escargo and measurements for the check-in and check-out system. Quality tools use the measurements collected to try to discover what improvements are possible. Quality tools that are widely used for analysis of quality issues in businesses are presented in

Monday, October 28, 2019

Analyzing Sherman Alexie’s “Superman and me” Essay Example for Free

Analyzing Sherman Alexie’s â€Å"Superman and me† Essay Can reading save a man’s way of life? Can reading save an entire culture? Sherman Alexie, an Indian creative writer writes an essay of which he acquaints us of his means in learning how to read, that is, through a Superman comic book. The essay was written in an alternating first person and third person style of telling. The first person way of telling was for his reflection. Those sentences that were written in the first person were Alexie’s own sentiments. The third person style was for his people. Probably it was meant as an insult since people who normally speak in a third person style are often deemed unintelligent since they cannot follow the rules of language. As the essays retells the experience of the author of how he learned how to read, there is one topic of which he focused, and that is how reading (and how it is connected to education) made a different impact in his way of life which can be very significant or relevant to the modern world today whose kids are taking education for granted. Reading and education Reading is a cognitive process of connecting meaning to a group of words, sentences, and letters. Not many can take the time to discipline themselves into liking and having reading as a habit but over the years reading has become a standard of calling a person or treating a person literate. It has become a mean to elevate one’s status. However, based on Sherman Alexie’s essay, knowing how to read downgrades the status of an Indian person. Indians are treated as the Native Americans. They weren’t treated kindly as the natives of the new world as history tells. They were often treated as the group of people who struggles with the advancement of life. People who are not social. If Indians were compared to animals, the Indians were the wild animals. And according to Alexie’s essay, the ones who stays wild, are the ones who’s status are high in the Indian world. In the modern world today, education has been treated as one of the major concerns of nations. More and more, the value and the quality of education have gone low and people in advance nations and culture are taking it for granted. On the other hand, Alexie and his dad are examples of people who defy the norms of their own society. People who counteracts their culture thus forming a kind a heroic act or in times a crime for/to their own people. I am trying to save our lives. † (Alexie 2). Alexie expressed his sentiment of saving their lives in two styles. One was personal and the other was towards the children he was teaching. While he defied the accustomed treatment of Indians to non-Indian education (i. e. how he had man arguments with his classmates to shut up his mouth towards the questions of the non-Indian teacher), he was hopeful that his people might change their attitude towards education (the reason why he ought to be a teacher among his people). In some ways, education defines how a person hopes for his worth. It is more than the status, it also creating an opportunity for one’s self and knowing how to use education in helping one feel fulfilled.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Free Henry IV Essays: Falstaff and King Henry :: Henry IV Henry V Essays

Henry IV - Falstaff and King Henry    Throughout the play Henry IV : Part I,there are many similarities between characters. Two that seem particularly alike are Falstaff and King Henry. Their common traits are demonstrated by Shakespeare in many subtle and not-so-subtle ways. While Falstaff seems   to be able to accept himself for what he is, the King appears to be tied up in his image as a great ruler, and thus will never admit to being anything less than great.      Ã‚   The characters of Falstaff and the King at first seem to be diametrically opposed opposites in terms of personality, yet they share many common traits. Falstaff is a thief; he admits to being a robber of purses, and, in fact, is pursued by the Sheriff at one point. The king is also a thief; instead of robbing purses from travellers, he stole an entire empire from Richard II, whom he also had murdered. In their ways of dealing with people, especially under uncomfortable circumstances, the two also behave in like ways. It is well known that Falstaff often works his way out of unpleasant situations using only his wit. The King is continuously modifying his behavior to suit the occasion, such as when he is dealing with Hotspur and the opposing Vassals and when he deals with Hal at the royal court. Both Falstaff and the King live,to a great extent, by the sharpness of their minds: Falstaff as a criminal, and the King as a politician. Another similar facet of these two characters is their view of bravery. Both the King and Falstaff subscribe to the theory that it is better to avoid danger and thus avoid the possibility of harm than to takerisks. Falstaff does this on several occasions,such as when he played dead during the battle to avoid injury. At this same battle, the King employed similar tactics, when he had many of his men disguised to look like him and thus him hard to find. It is in these ways that Falstaff and the King are alike; it would appear that their only real differences are in how they see themselves. A politician and a thief can be said to have many things in common.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Courbet Stonebreakers

Courbet’s Stonebreakers Courbet’s stonebreakers is a painting drawn by Gustave Courbet and have been seen by two different art historians who write about their opinions about Courbet’s meaning behind his painting. Courbet’s painting can either be interpreted as a painting that shows in detail hardship and emotion of manual labor, or a painting that just a â€Å"metaphor as an act of painting†, but the understanding of it as hardship and emotion of manual labor is more sufficient because by the looks of the two men it reminds me of times where back in the day everything was done manually. Linda Nochlin is one of the art historians who argues about how some people don’t really understand the meaning of Courbet’s painting. She tries to explain how in his painting he shows us how manual labor really is. He expressed how real it use to be and how difficult it was for those at the time of 1849. She believes that many people just see his painting as two workers just breaking stones with lack of aerial perspective. Michael Fried another art historian argues that no one will ever know what Courbet was really trying to say. Fried believes that it â€Å"remains an open question†, that the poses, their clothes, how far they stand from each other can mean different things. He chooses to believe that Courbet just painted that because he like the scene of two men working in a environment with a lot of dirt. He thinks that Courbet’s painting can be interpreted as a an act of painting or an image of labor. Each author use the painting as evidence, but Fried seems to use some sort of story that was written about how Courbet was influenced to paint â€Å"The Stonebreakers†. Nochlin’s just gives us her opinion. Which even though their wasn’t a story she had a good point. Even though Fried had facts and showed us that the painting can be seen as in either way I still have to agree with Nochlin’s opinion. I’m sure there are many ways to see the painting but I believe the painting comes more to life when you think of it as Courbet showing us how low class society in the mid 1800’s manual labor use to be. It reminds me how difficult things use to be back then and how now we have it way easier. Nochlin’s just seemed to grab my attention and convinced me more than Frieds point of view. Michelle Cavazos April 19, 2010

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Customer Experience

Customer experience is practically the complete make up of a client’s transaction over the internet. It is the general span of a customer’s behavior on how he perceives the products and services, how much he avails of these commodities and how he reacts passively to the presented info on the company’s websites. One more approach to regard customer experience can be pointed out in the way clients tend to integrate their objectives in the overall product presentation of the business entity. Apparently, Web companies are very concerned about the customer experience principles because these factors readily provide the big picture of the firm’s performance. The main reason is that when they provide better customer experience they tend to retain their existing clients instead of acquiring new ones. Add to that that the advertising mileage benefits if a client’s customer   experience is good as being considered in â€Å"customer advocacy† of promotion to their fellow consumers (Allen, 2005). This is true since they consider losing a client to a competitor is just a click away. In the modern age of internet commerce, there are different types of data that online companies use to evaluate their respective customer experience magnitudes. One example is by collecting data which reflects the shopping activities of consumers. Another form of data being collected by Web firms is the kind of activities visitors do in their Web pages. These data can help evaluate the overall behavior of the clients while inside the company’s domain. Most shopping websites use software to track the actual inventory of their products as reflected by the number of purchases done online. One more data value being used by Web firms is in the aspect of passive customer satisfaction after sales. Some companies conduct small but efficient surveys in order to track the progress of the company whether it actually retains old customer, increase their numbers or losses them. These surveys are being presented through non-spam e-mails or ready to use platforms in the company’s web page. The new sets of technologies available today for customer experience development are almost always in the platform of computer software. Since Web companies do their transactions online, the only possible way to promote good customer experience is to provide clients with Web interface functions for their convenience. For example, the software SAP AG of TeaLeaf is being used by U.S. Airways to detect typographical errors in order entry. This helps the customers provide accurate data for ticket dispensing. Another example is by introducing do-it-yourself features in customized purchasing. The satisfaction of a client may now be tracked using ForeSee and iPerceptions platforms by asking survey questions from them. One more type of technology is the one that empowers customers to find answers through built-in search parameters like â€Å"FAQ† (Frequently Asked Questions) link. Kana Software makes it possible to increase the level of search hits of a customer who needs a quick answer to an inquiry. In summary, the Web firms are insinuating that their previous goals to enhance customer experience are actually paving the way for a more beneficial result in terms of their performance. With the technology and techniques in customized marketing, they have been experiencing a complete growth of sales and service requests from old and new customers. The US Airways ticketing sales have doubled while BasePro increased its revenue by 10% due to customized e-mail ads for its clients. They are now measuring success by considering how much of the customers are still doing business with them as well as how other clients are being drawn towards their Websites due to new technology make ups. References Allen, J., Reichheld, F., Hamilton, B. 2005. The Three â€Å"Ds† of Customer Experience. Working Knowledge-Harvard Business School. Retrieved May 13, 2008 from

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Computers Make Life Easier

Computers Make Life Easier Free Online Research Papers Computers have made an impact in this world. From the past until the present people have been using computers for many different things. Although, theirs a lot of people who have used a computer; But they dont understand it and maybe not even appreciate it. Now, what if their werent any computers at all? Would you think itll be easy? Well, honestly I feel that computers have made our lives easier and I will answer how. Computers have been in this world since the B.C. Era, with Antikythera mechanism; which was used like a calculating mechanism. Theyre were other calculating mechanisms in that era like, abacus which means dust, astrolabe, and the slide rule. By the 1200s, a astronomical clock was built called The Castle Clock. This device was built to display the zodiac in the skies. In 1890, a Tabulating machine was manufactured by IBM which was used to punch the cards of the U.S. Census that was scheduled for that year. Later on in 19th century, other machines were manufactured by IBM; Like, the Boolean algebra, the vacuum tube, and the teleprinter. In the beginning of the 20th century, scientists thought of scientific computing which they would call them analog computers; which opened the gateway to digital computers. In the 1940s, their were many installations of digital computers. One of the installations was Suze Z3 which was manufactured to store memory and calculate. Another installation was Harvard Mark 1 manufactured by IBM and to store numbers of memory and also calculate. Another installation was Csirac, which was also used as the same as Suze Z3 And Harvard Mark 1. Back then, computers were these huge server like machines. By the 1960s, 70s, and 80s; computers were becoming machines for houses. In the 1980s IBM invented the Personal Computer as known as P.C. By the 1990s the P.C. Became a must have and with AOL introducing the Internet, their wasnt a house that didnt own a P.C. Throughout history the computers were being used and only for a few purposes. Those purposes were: to store information; to calculate major numbers; to gather up information and transfer it for one place to another; to get access to the files that they needed; and to do their jobs. Now computers are being used for everything. You can access the Internet, you can type up papers, you can construct a database, you can create a presentation, you can listen to music, and many other functions. Computers have made our lives easier just by functioning and accommodating our needs as to the new technology and the old. Everything we see, do, listen, and feel is just basic computer emotions. I think if computers were never invented then life would not only be hard but it would also be boring. And if you think about it everything is being run by computers. P.C.s have ruled the world since men built it. Without any P.C.s their wouldnt be any food, their also wouldnt be any cars, their wouldnt be any money, and I think their wouldnt be no world. Think about it, if their werent any P.C.s in the world we would have mostly nothing that we do have now: like cellphones; i pods; digital cameras; cable; Internet; and so much more. Research Papers on Computers Make Life EasierThe Project Managment Office SystemThe Masque of the Red Death Room meaningsCapital PunishmentBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever Product19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraGenetic EngineeringAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaThree Concepts of Psychodynamic

Monday, October 21, 2019

Investigation of UK Supermarkets

Investigation of UK Supermarkets Introduction A supermarket is a large self service retail outlet that deals with the sale of groceries. However, this definition is just a general overview. This is for the reason that modern supermarkets include a huge ultramodern building that provides packaging services to their shoppers. Currently, supermarkets are not only restricted to selling groceries. Many large supermarkets also sell other products, such as, electronics, clothing, and furniture. A more advanced version of supermarkets is the hypermarkets.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Investigation of UK Supermarkets specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are so many supermarkets in the United Kingdom today. Their emergence and rapid growth was experienced during the period between the First World War and the Second World War. There are many factors that influenced their growth in the United Kingdom’s supermarkets. These factors include the favour able legislature and a preference of consumers that acted in favour of their growth. The legislatures have passed through a series of adjustments to respond to the consumer needs. One of the main aims of these regulations was to support the growth of larger self-service retail outlets while at the same time ensuring that the small retail counter-service stores retain their role in the newly structured retail market. However, these legislatures have not been quite effective in some of their policies for the reason that despite their enforcement, the growth of large self-service retail stores has continued to strangle the smaller retail outlets from the retail market. T hus, Britain’s high streets have continued to be dominated with large faceless retail stores making the small retail stores to diminish in the market. It is quiet correct to say that the UK supermarkets have continued to dominate the grocery market and are very powerful in the way that they run their businesses, and the number of local convenience stores has also continued to decline. The Retail Landscape Of 1955 The modern debates about the retail outlets are mainly influenced by the past retail landscape. The recent research done by the ‘Clone Town Britain Survey’ has been able to reveal that during the 1950s, the retail spaces were filled with a prosperous complex of independent small retail outlets such as butchers, food chains, greengrocers, stationery shops, and news paper agents. Currently, these spaces have been taken up by large supermarket retailers that are rapidly killing the small shops (Maxwell Slater 2004). In the late twentieth century there has been a rigorous retail change in British cities. This change includes the transformation from British high streets that had independent shops together with those shops owned by multiple co-operative retail organizations into the contemporary British high streets that have ultra modern superstores. It was during the lat e twentieth century that the counter-service groceries began to seriously compete with the modern self service retail outlets currently known as supermarkets.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to the available records, supermarkets were heralded by multiple chains owned by co-operative retail organizations. The economic implications of the co-operative retailing modelling were that it led to the growth of the business thereby causing its expansion in the retail landscape. In the period between the first and the second world wars, the companies that had multiple grocery shops experienced a booming business due to the increased purchasing power of the employed citizens. The increased presence of cheap food also contributed to the booming business experienced by the multiple chains during this period. One thing worth noting is that the small shops owned by in dependent retailers in the mid twentieth century were not necessarily synonymous with the size as described. This is because some of the retailers had large shops that would, sometimes, be the most significant store in a particular locality. The idea of the supermarkets experienced its rapid assimilation in the United States of America during the early twentieth century. However, when it was introduced in Britain, it came less rapidly with the first supermarket being operated by the co-operative movement as a self service food experiment. This was during the period when the Second World War was just ending (that was during the mid 1940s). Very few grocers emulated the trend thereby contributing to the slow process of the growth of self service outlets. It is therefore estimated that in the year 1947, there were a mere 10 supermarkets in the whole of the United Kingdom. There are many reasons why the growth of self service stores was slow in Britain. Notable among them was the amount of resources needed to convert counter-service outlets into self-service retail outlets. A lot of building materials and human resource in the construction industry was required. It should be noted that both of these requirements were short in supply. For that reason, very few companies were able to afford to convert their stores. The second reason was because the shops were limited by their sizes. Some of the shops were so small thereby could not be converted into larger supermarkets. The only option the retail owners were left with was to begin building from the scratch. Otherwise, their conversion would only result into small scale self-service stores, not big enough to be called supermarkets. There were some large-scale multiple stores that had embraced this change but due to doubts, they did not expect successful results. Many studies had been done and the most notable conclusion of the analysis was that since the majority of Britons had been accustomed to small scale counter- service, it would not be feasible to imagine them wondering along the aisles of the self service stores in search for goods.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Investigation of UK Supermarkets specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It was until the mid twentieth century that the self-service stores gained momentum in growth. The main effects of this rapid growth were positively imparting. Many supermarkets developed as a result of these factors coupled with the government’s promotion of self-service retail stores. In addition, some elements of the retail grocery counter-service stores were also keen in developing self-service stores. As a result, Britain managed to open a total of fifty supermarkets by the year 1950. The trends continued and by the year 1961 the number of supermarkets had risen to 572. Reports indicate that in the year 1969, there were already 3,400 supermarkets in the whole of Britain. Legal Framewo rk and Economic Structures That Have Enabled the Domination of Supermarkets in the United Kingdom The legal framework in the United Kingdom is one that allows free market capitalism. Thus, the U.K. supermarkets are free to follow the principles of supply and demand. This means that they do provide the goods that the customers want while at the same time free to set the prices of the same goods. This liberty is provided for by the UK’s legal framework and hence it is legitimate for them to lay down prices as per their requirements. Hence, they also have bargaining power whereby they can pay their suppliers according to what they want. The level playing field brought about by the legal framework of the United Kingdom also ensures that there is healthy competition. However, the discrepancies caused by this legal framework have not been supportive enough to the small businesses. Small retailers have therefore been squeezed by the larger self-service businesses thereby causing the m to have less for them to buy since they have weaker purchasing power. This mechanism works in such a way that the supermarkets enter into a contract with major suppliers in which their agreements bind the suppliers not to supply anyone else with the goods. The effect of this legal framework also affects the small shops in such a way that the preference of most consumers in buying many goods under one roof reduces the viability of the small shops. The Role of Large Growing Supermarkets to Consumers Policy makers have been involved in enacting legislation that aim at tightening regulations of supermarket retailing. This has been capacitated through competition legislation coupled with town planning. The rapid growth of large supermarkets has been viewed in a different perception by the communities. There has been a lot of debate on the effects of the rapid growth of large supermarkets. Many people have perceived this growth as a factor that has led to the decay of major business str eets in the cities. Many investigations have been launched to look into the issue of building large out-of-town supermarkets and their contribution to the decay of high streets. A good example of such investigations is the 2005 study done by the ‘Clone Town Britain Survey’ (Hamlett et al Not Dated).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The report of this study criticized contemporary British retail industry on many issues. The bone of contention is that the modern UK retail outlets have dominated Britain’s high streets in many towns. The effect of the domination is that the faceless chains have led to the reduction in the amount of choices available to consumers. The effects of reduction in small retail shops and the increase in large supermarkets were also analyzed by ‘The High Street Britain 2015† report. The report that was done by the House of Commons Select Committee argued that the extinction of the small shops by the growth of large supermarket chains will adversely affect consumer choice. This will happen if the government doesn’t take necessary measures to avert the process. The act of enacting necessary legislature to regulate and bring a state of equilibrium between growing supermarket chains and diminishing small retail outlets is therefore left in the hands of policy makers. This situation holds because the retail business in Britain has passed through tremendous changes from counter service-shops to large retail outlets that allow for self service. It is worth noting that consumers in Britain have been rapidly embracing self service methods of shopping over the past 20 years. The issue of consumer choice also form the central pivot on which the contemporary debates hinge. Consumer choice is perceived as a moving force to a healthy competition and also it indicates the basic civil rights. It is thus perceived that the diminishing of the small retail outlets will have a catastrophic impact on the aspect of consumer choice in the future. A careful analysis indicates that the party that will be affected negatively is the consumer. To exemplify this, there will be limited brands to chose from, limited choice of available items, limited choice of places to shop, increased prices of available products and a reduction in the quality and availability of custome r care services. According to ‘The High Street Britain 2015’ survey, the consumers are unlikely to benefit from a competitive market in the future. This is because the current competition is not stable and therefore may not be sustained in the long run. Similar researches have also highlighted the importance of consumption in relation to social aspects (Hamlett et al Not Dated). It is thus imperative for policy makers to consider exploring the benefit of the history of self-service retail stores to post war Britain. Benefits of Modern Technological Input in Supermarkets to Consumers Modern technologies have been employed in supermarkets to improve efficiency and quality of services. One of the most notable is a loyalty card. This is a card made of plastic or paper issued by particular organizations, be it business or social organizations or otherwise, to identify the holder as having a legitimacy of membership to a loyalty program. It is usually similar to a debit card or a credit card although this is only on the physical visualization. Its name varies from country to country. Loyalty cards are employed by consumers as a show of their identification (as loyal clients) in a given supermarket; this will assure the shopper of a discount on the existing purchase or an incentive of points that can be used to pay for goods in the future after accumulating to specified levels. The other benefit of loyalty cards is that it assures the customers that they will get great services of high quality. This is because the business organization knows that the loyal customers holding the loyalty cards will give them good business. Customers receive discounts from the products they purchase and can also purchase the goods by redeeming the points (Dahlen, Lange Smith 2010). Protection of Consumers by the Law The competitive free market allows for the consumer to respond to a disappointing purchase by switching to another supplier. In such an environment, the law do es not have a role to play. Currently, most contracts protect the consumer expectation arising through bargaining process (Howells and Weatherill 2005). The law gives a provision that acts to ensure that consumer preference is securely enforced. In the United Kingdom, the law that seeks to protect consumers usually operates beyond the realm of obligations agreed between the producer and consumer. The individual consumer’s legal rights offer a more first hand protection of their demands than the more indirect and greatly oblique sanction of commercial failure caused by withdrawal of custom. Failure to conform to the contract between the consumer and the retailer will result in legal liability. This protects the consumer and sharpens the message to the producer about the need to use resources in an efficient manner. In addition, there is also the private law that gives the consumer autonomy to act in the belief that they hold rights protected by law that can be asserted without the need to rely on an intermediary. The current market practice relies on the assumption that private economic relations involve the possibility of receiving some kind of support from the government. The support is believed to come in form of provision for enforcement of private law rights. It should be noted that the consumer/supplier relationship under the current private law assimilates more than a simple agreement. Both the courts and the parliament have extended the legal implications of the consumer/supplier relationships, and over the last twenty years this trend has been promoted and underpinned by legislative activity in the country (Howells and Weatherill 2005). Ways of Improving Competition between Supermarkets There are a number of ways that can be used to improve competition in the supermarket grocery stores. Many methods relate to the mechanics of inflow and outflow of products sold in these grocery stores. Among the methods includes the maintenance of optimal produc t availability. Recent studies have indicated that 8.2 percent of a grocery retailer’s items are out of stock on a typical afternoon. Frequent stock outs and restricted variety of products are among the major factors that cause consumer dissatisfaction among supermarket shoppers (Matsa 2009). Therefore, supermarkets should enhance product availability so that healthy competition is ensured. This will also enhance the consumer’s future shopping behaviour. The structure of retail competition is correlated with the quality of supermarkets. Stores that face healthy competition usually have higher rates of stock outs than other stores. It is worth noting that an increase in prices of commodity increases the quality and availability of products on supermarket shelves. This is because the increased prices act as an incentive to improve on the quality and quantity as well. Other methods of competition include developing new products, improving existing products, changing their prices, developing new packaging and design, improving customer service and building up a new reputation (Seliet 2000). Supermarkets ought to be responsive to personal needs, customer attitudes, tastes and preferences, economic conditions, the climate, supplier attitudes, the prevailing legislature, fashion and technology. These factors will aid in the development of new products thus bringing into the market an unrestricted variety of products. Thus, a healthy competition will be enhanced. Customer services should also be improved such that retail outlets ensure that the customer is satisfied with their products. Changing the prices of commodities can make a retail outlet win a massive share of the market by attracting more customers which results in making of more profits thereby competing with rival businesses (Seliet 2000). Conclusion In conclusion, supermarkets in the United Kingdom rapidly developed during the period between the two wars. This is because the idea of large sel f-service retail stores developed less rapidly in the United Kingdom than in the United States. It was only until the 1950s that the smaller counter service stores found themselves competing with the larger self service stores. The government of Britain recognized the importance of supermarkets in economic development and thus, began to enact legislature in support of their growth. Although these laws have been moderated in favour of the consumers, the self-service retail outlets and the small scale retail services, the small scale retail outlets have continued to diminish from the British markets especially along Britain’s high streets. Reference List Dahlen, M., Lange, F., Smith, T., 2010. Marketing Communications: A Brand Narrative Approach. West Sussex, John Wiley Sons Ltd. Hamlett, J. et al., Not Dated. Regulating UK Supermarkets: An Oral-History Perspective. [Online] Available at: perspective . Howells, G., Weatherill, S., 2005. Consumer Protection Law. Ed. 2. Burlington, USA, Ashgate Publishing Company. Matsa, D., 2009. Competition and Product Quality in the Supermarket Industry. Northwestern University, Kellogg School of Management. Maxwell, S., Slater, R., 2004. Food Policy: Old and New. Oxford United Kingdom, Blackwell Publishing. Seliet, H., 2000. Foundation Business. Oxford, Heinemann Education Publishers.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Russian Revolution Timeline

Russian Revolution Timeline The Russian Revolution of 1917 deposed the czar and installed the Bolsheviks in power. After winning the civil war in Russia, the Bolsheviks established the Soviet Union in 1922. Timelines of the Russian Revolution are often confusing because up until February 1918 Russia used a different calendar than the rest of the Western world. The 19th century, the Julian calendar, used by Russia, was 12 days behind the Gregorian calendar (used by most of the Western world) until March 1, 1900, when it became 13 days behind. In this timeline, the dates are in the Julian Old Style, with the Gregorian New Style (NS) date in parentheses, until the change in 1918. Thereafter, all dates are in the Gregorian. Timeline of the Russian Revolution 1887 May 8 (May 20 NS) - Lenins brother, Alexander Ulyanov, is hanged for plotting to kill Czar Alexander III. 1894 October 20 (November 1 NS) - Czar Alexander III dies after a sudden illness and his son, Nicholas II, becomes the ruler of Russia.November 14 (November 26 NS) - Czar Nicholas II marries Alexandra Fedorovna. 1895 December 8 (December 20 NS) - Lenin is arrested, kept in solitary confinement for 13 months, and then exiled to Siberia for three years. 1896 May 14 (May 26 NS) - Nicholas II crowned czar of Russia. Print Collector/Getty Images / Getty Images 1903 July 17 - August 10 (July 30 - August 23 NS) - The Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP) meeting in which the Party splits into two factions: Mensheviks (minority) and Bolsheviks (majority). 1904 July 30 (August 12 NS) - After having four girls, Czarina Alexandra gives birth to a son, Alexei. 1905 January 9 (January 22 NS) - Bloody Sunday in St. Petersburg begins the 1905 Russian Revolution.October 17 (October 30 NS) - The October Manifesto, issued by Czar Nicholas II, brings an end to the 1905 Russian Revolution by promising civil liberties and an elected parliament (Duma). 1906 April 23 (May 6 NS) - A constitution (the Fundamental Laws of 1906) is created, reflecting the promises made in the October Manifesto. 1914 July 15 (July 28 NS) - World War I begins. 1915 September 5 (September 18 NS) - Czar Nicholas II assumes supreme command of the Russian Army. 1916 December 17 (December 30) - Rasputin is murdered. 1917 February 23-27 (March 8-12 NS) - The February Revolution begins with strikes, demonstrations, and mutinies in Petrograd (also called the March Revolution if following the Gregorian calendar).March 2 (March 15 NS) - Czar Nicholas II abdicates and includes his son. The following day, Nicholas brother, Mikhail announced his refusal to accept the throne. Provisional Government formed.April 3 (April 16 NS) - Lenin returns from exile and arrives in Petrograd via a sealed train.July 3-7 (July 16-20 NS) - The July Days begin in Petrograd with spontaneous protests against the Provisional Government; after the Bolsheviks unsuccessfully try to direct these protests into a coup, Lenin is forced into hiding.July 11 (July 24 NS) - Alexander Kerensky becomes Prime Minister of the Provisional Government.August 22-27 (September 4-9 NS) - The Kornilov Affair, a failed coup by General Lavr Kornilov, commander of the Russian Army.October 25 (November 7 NS) - The October Revolution - the Bolsheviks take over Petrograd (also called the November Revolution if following the Gregorian calendar). October 26 (November 8 NS) - The Winter Palace, the last holdout of the Provisional Government, is taken by the Bolsheviks; the Council of Peoples Commissars (abbreviated as Sovnarkom), led by Lenin, is now in control of Russia. 1918 February 1/14 - The new Bolshevik government converts Russia from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar turning February 1 into February 14.March 3 - The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, between Germany and Russia, is signed and takes Russia out of World War I.March 8 - The Bolshevik Party changes its name to the Communist Party.March 11 - The capital of Russia is changed from St. Petersburg to Moscow.June - Russian civil war begins.July 17 - Czar Nicholas II and his family are executed.August 30 - An assassination attempt leaves Lenin seriously wounded. Heritage Images / Getty Images 1920 November - Russian civil war ends. 1922 April 3 - Stalin is appointed General Secretary.May 26 - Lenin suffers his first stroke.December 15 - Lenin suffers his second stroke and retires from politics.December 30 - The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) established. 1924 January 21 - Lenin dies; Stalin will become his successor. Laski Diffusion / Getty Images

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 73

Summary - Essay Example Serious and violent felonies are exclusively listed in state regulations. Violent offenses comprise of murder, burglary of a home in which a dangerous or deadly weapon is used, rape plus other sex offenses. Severe offenses comprise of the same offenses defined as violent offenses, but also take in other crimes such as burglary of a home and assault with an intention to commit a murder or robbery. This regulation also punishes habitual offenders (Walker 1). The law of imposing longer jail sentences for habitual offenders than first-time offenders who commit a similar crime. This is because Judges also take into consideration previous offenses before sentencing. Nevertheless, there is a more up to date history of mandatory prison sentences for habitual offenders. For instance, New York has a law, Persistent Felony Offender, which dates back to 19th century (Walker 2). Such sentences were, however, not obligatory in all cases, and judges had much more caution than before as to what term of imprisonment may be imposed. The three strikes law, however, works. Take a state like California for instance. Violent crimes, especially murder, have gone down in the Los Angeles area, plus other areas of the southland (Garvey 1). Homicide count in Los Angeles in the year 2010 was 297. This was less than a third of the 1992 homicides that were 1000 (Garvey 1). However, this might only be a correlation and not underlying, as violent crime has also gone down in other parts of California where the three strikes rule is not obligatory. It should also be renowned that punishments for murder are exceptionally harsh. Murder results in tremendously long sentences, life sentences without the likelihood of parole or even a death penalty (Garvey 1). Even though, it is a first conviction, murder still overshadows any curb effect of the three strikes law. Nevertheless, there is some proof that offenders on their last strike are more anxious to flee

Research J 5.3 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Research J 5.3 - Essay Example The researcher must support with an explanation each item on the questionnaire what it is expected to measure. Face validity can take items by face value and exactly assess the face value. Some items can have lower face validity than what it appears to have. It involves the assessment of normal people in the field. Content validity involves the assessment of experts in the field, but it is non-empirical and judgmental (Adler & Clark, 2014). Reliability is measured by test-retest which is obtained by running the same test twice on the same test subject in a given period. The results from both tests are evaluated for test of stability over that period. Example, a test done for a particular crime can be retested in the occurrence of another similar crime. The correlation will give a stability score. Construct validity is assessment based on variables that are related. Construct validity carries weight when proof or of evidence is provided. Interrater reliability is used where results for one observer are strategically used in comparison with another using the same method. Interrater reliability is used when two or more measures are not reliable. They can compare correlatively those results using interrater (Maxifield & Babbie, 2012). A scale is defined as a measure of responding to a question, compilation of statements or questions used to respond to a concept studied. There are three types of attitudinal scaling used in criminal justice. Thurstone scale uses paired comparisons and equal appearing intervals methods to scale. Judges are given several pairs of questions and choose which would most fit the concept of study. The one picked most becomes part of the questionnaire. The judges are required to give a number scale on the strength of each question. The researcher then takes the questions that showed the strongest agreement from the judges. The weak questions are eliminated when

Friday, October 18, 2019

Problem solving Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 4

Problem solving - Essay Example Gandhi was committed to one course of action, truth, and love (John, 1). In a way, it is presumable that Gandhi was inclined to a commitment block, which made him blind to the realities of religious animosity, a notion that eventually led to his demise through an assassin’s bullet. Although his message of love and truth and non-violence worked against the colonial government, a strategy would not help the citizenry come together, as each segment held strongly to their own religious belief. Even though violence based on religion dissipates, Gandhi remains experiences a constancy block by relying on a previous strategy to resolve issues in the Indian social milieu, which annoys many dissidents on either side and culminates in his sudden assassination. Gandhi’s popularity had made him increasingly vulnerable to limitations of complacency block, and he did not realize the increasing controversial aspect his campaign was taking for the religious issues in the country. Therefore, his shooting was completely unexpected, as the movie portrays in his final words, ‘Oh God!’ (John, 1). Admiral Kimmel was a casualty of constancy blocking. Through experience, Kimmel strongly believed that Japan would never attack Pearl Harbor, a viewpoint that made the harbor highly vulnerable to attacks by Japanese forces (MSU Billings, 1). Using compression blocking it is apparent that Admiral Kimmel was basing his decisions on his own creations of realities, where he imagined that war with Japan would never get as close to American soil as Pearl Harbor. Both Kimmel and Gandhi were subject to conceptual blocking. Kimmel’s vulnerability to commitment block made him oblivious to the possibility of attack at Pearl Harbor, and Gandhi’s constancy block made him adhere to a similar stance for resolving religious issues in his country, resulting in his assassination. In a way, Gandhi was able

The cross section of Globalisation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

The cross section of Globalisation - Essay Example Coming out of internal fissures, we then analyse the share of its structural framework in triggering current financial collapse. Free Trade regime promulgated Deregulation, which has been the underlying cause of today's liberalized world. This philosophy has been the source for lax and ludicrous financial sector management that aided the global financial system to collapse. The ensuing panic that has spread out of the economic meltdown is tempting enough for nations to reverse gains of open policies by reverting back to protectionist approach. Calls for G20 to address the very fears of scaling back and to come up with singular global stance, are proving speech fully tactical but practically inconclusive. Despite of all these fears and anxiety, the Gross domestic contribution of free trade has been immense and can not be shrouded by just single brush of jittering. Greater global integration 'brain child of Globalisation, on one hand has not only given us tools for prosperity by employ ing thousands of workers across continents, while on the other hand made them vulnerable on slightest of demand fluctuations. Present crisis no doubt has brought hard time upon Global economic regime but on the same note provided us with an opportunity to rectify those worms that had conveniently been ignored for long time. Introduction The Demise of Globalisation as narrated by Princeton's economist in his obituary "The late Great Globalisation"1 confines us to look in to its realm in a very limited and constrained fashion, such that we only seem to view the extreme shades on the spectrum's periphery while ignorantly shrugging the rest. Globalisation is about finance, economics, investment, trade, borders and barriers no doubt, but it also encompasses while shouting load about the flow of ideas that are free to flow across the world, their convergence and divergence. The breadth and depth of Globalisation is more comprehensively addressed by David Held, a political scientist who envision it as the "widening, deepening and speeding up of worldwide interconnectedness in all aspects of contemporary social life"2. Thus expanding the very realm to incorporate slants of life's social, political and economic shades. The Great Shift Seismic shift that has taken place after the violent jolts of world economic crisis has ripped apart the already disdained and reservation-ridden world trade order. Today when the battle for survival is on, Seven years of wasted Doha round are beginning to shape into a painful memoir of impasse. The lost opportunity is beginning to afflict the very foundations of global free trading regime, that could have been achieved if interest of corporations and powerful governments had been neutralised for greater gains of global integration. In the wake of attaining consensus, the presiding of invitation-only ministerial meetings in the so called 'Green rooms, by Lamy1 were enough to dispel the ideals of WTO, whose commitment has been an environment based on consensus, harmony and equality. The height of irony was still grossly palpable when even the exclusive few could not converge on single agenda to work through with. Even before the current crisis ever emerged, the road through WTO had already become rock-strewn. WTO's Director General Supachai Panitchpakdi3 who

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Analytical Formal Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Analytical Formal Report - Essay Example The appropriate solution should be one that seems feasible, easy to implement, and should have long-term effects on the industry. After benchmarking the two possible solutions against the criteria previously mentioned, I recommend improving the dining experience by improving the customer service and general environment of the restaurants. This solution will attract more customers to the Chinese restaurants making the Chinese restaurant industry one of the most profitable hospitality industries of the United States. I hope you find this report helpful in regards to solving the problems of the Chinese restaurant industry of the United States. If you have any questions or comments regarding my recommendations, please feel free to contact me at email address or telephone number. Thank you for providing me with the opportunity to research this problem. Sincerely, Your name here PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS FOR THE CHINESE RESTAURANTS AROUND STATE COLLEGE       Prepared for: General Managers      Ã‚   Prepared by: Please write your name The Pennsylvania State University          August 03, 2013 Executive Summary Chinese restaurants around the State College are experiencing a major drop in their sales due to increase in competition. The main problem is that customers are particularly not happy with their service standards and the environment of the Chinese restaurants. This is adversely affecting the level of sales of the restaurants that forces them to target only Chinese clientele, which is a very small target market for the restaurants. A few dimensions of the problem are given below Increasing competition Disgruntle customers due to lack of good customers service and environment Focus on only Chinese student market which is small The criteria for the best solution included solving the above mentioned problems in a cost effective manner, as well as within a plausible timeframe. Two solutions to the problem were proposed in the report. The first solution was to improve the dining experience and customer service in order to attract customers. This included changing the interior, as well as the environment of the restaurant. The second solution was to enhance marketing channels of the restaurants using social media and word of mouth marketing. This solution was aimed at improving customer perception regarding Chinese restaurants around the State College. The solution that best fits the criteria is to improve the environment because it involves bringing operational level changes that can create a difference. The solution is also both cost effective and plausible. Table of Contents Executive Summary 4 Introduction 6 Proposed Solutions to the Problem 7 Improve the Level of Customer Satisfaction 7 Enhancing Marketing Efforts 8 Conclusions and Recommendations 10 References 11 Appendix II†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚ ¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦...13 Introduction The restaurant industry of the United States of America has become extremely competitive because of the entry of many new players. The diversity of customer market in the US restaurant industry is significant and this is why many types of restaurants are in business offering different types of cuisine. Chinese cuisine is also highly sought after in the

Creative paper Consider yourself to be a political candidate for Assignment

Creative paper Consider yourself to be a political candidate for national office - Assignment Example He has lost sight of what is best for the people and instead, allows his own political ambitions, and party affiliations to dictate the moves that he shall make. We were once known as the Last Remaining Super Power in the world. We were the international police. Our presence in turmoil filled countries brought peace and stability. Our political, social, and economic system was once the envy of other nations. We were the allies of those oppressed and the enemies of those who wished to dominate the world. We have lost that standing now. These days, thanks to the cowardly leadership in Washington, North Korea thinks they can aim bombs at our allies, build nuclear weapons, and threaten the peace in South Korea. China has been flexing its muscles in the international community and bullies countries that dare to question their occupation of the Spratly Islands. Rogue nations now think that because America has lost its way, there is no need to fear the countrys position as an international leader anymore. After all, our president has decided that we are spending too much on military improvements and wars abroad. Totally missing the point that witho ut our well equipped military forces, and fighting wars abroad, we would be fighting the terrorist battle right here on our very soil. Causing more sociopolitical and economic problems for the citizens of this country. It isnt surprising that he cant handle diplomatic relations with other nations. That is why he hired Hillary Clinton to be his Secretary of State. Barack Obama doesnt have any international relation skills at all. He was just a newbie senator when he decided to run for president. On his first international trip to Germany as president the first thing he did was apologize for the actions of America during the war. And he has done that every country that he has visited since. He has turned America in a â€Å"lame duck† country. Further proving that he was in no way, shape, or form ready for the

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Analytical Formal Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Analytical Formal Report - Essay Example The appropriate solution should be one that seems feasible, easy to implement, and should have long-term effects on the industry. After benchmarking the two possible solutions against the criteria previously mentioned, I recommend improving the dining experience by improving the customer service and general environment of the restaurants. This solution will attract more customers to the Chinese restaurants making the Chinese restaurant industry one of the most profitable hospitality industries of the United States. I hope you find this report helpful in regards to solving the problems of the Chinese restaurant industry of the United States. If you have any questions or comments regarding my recommendations, please feel free to contact me at email address or telephone number. Thank you for providing me with the opportunity to research this problem. Sincerely, Your name here PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS FOR THE CHINESE RESTAURANTS AROUND STATE COLLEGE       Prepared for: General Managers      Ã‚   Prepared by: Please write your name The Pennsylvania State University          August 03, 2013 Executive Summary Chinese restaurants around the State College are experiencing a major drop in their sales due to increase in competition. The main problem is that customers are particularly not happy with their service standards and the environment of the Chinese restaurants. This is adversely affecting the level of sales of the restaurants that forces them to target only Chinese clientele, which is a very small target market for the restaurants. A few dimensions of the problem are given below Increasing competition Disgruntle customers due to lack of good customers service and environment Focus on only Chinese student market which is small The criteria for the best solution included solving the above mentioned problems in a cost effective manner, as well as within a plausible timeframe. Two solutions to the problem were proposed in the report. The first solution was to improve the dining experience and customer service in order to attract customers. This included changing the interior, as well as the environment of the restaurant. The second solution was to enhance marketing channels of the restaurants using social media and word of mouth marketing. This solution was aimed at improving customer perception regarding Chinese restaurants around the State College. The solution that best fits the criteria is to improve the environment because it involves bringing operational level changes that can create a difference. The solution is also both cost effective and plausible. Table of Contents Executive Summary 4 Introduction 6 Proposed Solutions to the Problem 7 Improve the Level of Customer Satisfaction 7 Enhancing Marketing Efforts 8 Conclusions and Recommendations 10 References 11 Appendix II†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚ ¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦...13 Introduction The restaurant industry of the United States of America has become extremely competitive because of the entry of many new players. The diversity of customer market in the US restaurant industry is significant and this is why many types of restaurants are in business offering different types of cuisine. Chinese cuisine is also highly sought after in the

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Brand management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Brand management - Assignment Example It is an international company with several sub-brands and a strong strategy in operation. In the United Kingdom, the company has a well-defined brand elements and architecture. Brand architecture acts as a powerful tool through which organizations can effectively organize the brands in their portfolio and focus on enhancing each and every brand in the market. In this regard, the choice of the brand architecture to be used is an important consideration which can greatly determine the performance of a brand in the market. In the case of Sony, the corporation has so many individual brands which create the need for effective brand architecture (Chernatony, 2008). In the United Kingdom, Sony uses the umbrella brand architecture in marketing its various brands across the country and beyond. This arises out of the fact that Sony has been a global brand over the years and the name has therefore become very synonymous with quality products. In this case, the umbrella or corporate brand offers an effective opportunity for the company to market its various sub-brands. Indeed, the nature of the products produced by Sony creates the need for a family name in order to limit much of the effort that would be used in promoting the individual brands. In this case, marketing can be done both for the individual sub-brands and by jointly marketing the family name. However, it should be realized that umbrella branding does not really imply that all the portfolio of the corporation falls under one name. Rather, the family name is just a unifying factor while each and every product has its different brand line. Across the United Kingdom, it is seen that Sony promotes its products effectively through the use of umbrella branding. Sony operates in the technology world where new products are constantly produced. For instance, when a new PlayStation is launched, promotion becomes much easy since the consumers are already acquainted with the bead name. In the

Monday, October 14, 2019

Branches of Philosophy Essay Example for Free

Branches of Philosophy Essay Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world, although the term is not easily defined. Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms: What is there? What is it like? A person who studies metaphysics is called a metaphysicist or a metaphysician. The metaphysician attempts to clarify the fundamental notions by which people understand the world, e. g. , existence, objects and their properties, space and time, cause and effect, and possibility. A central branch of metaphysics is ontology, the investigation into the basic categories of being and how they relate to each other. Another central branch of metaphysics is cosmology, the study of the totality of all phenomena within the universe. Prior to the modern history of science, scientific questions were addressed as a part of metaphysics known as natural philosophy. Originally, the term science (Latin scientia) simply meant knowledge. The scientific method, however, transformed natural philosophy into an empirical activity deriving from experiment unlike the rest of philosophy. By the end of the 18th century, it had begun to be called science to distinguish it from philosophy. Thereafter, metaphysics denoted philosophical enquiry of a non-empirical character into the nature of existence. [6] Some philosophers of science, such as the neo-positivists, say that natural science rejects the study of metaphysics, while other philosophers of science strongly disagree. areas of philosophy, and most other philosophical schools turn back to it for basic definition. In that respect, the term metaphysics is a broad one, encompassing the philosophical ideas of cosmology and ontology. Metaphysics or First Philosophy The term â€Å"metaphysics† comes from Greek, meaning â€Å"after the Physics†. Although the term metaphysics generally makes sense in the way that it partially refers to things outisde of and beyond the natural sciences, this is not the origin of the term (as opposted to, say, meta-ethics, which refers to the nature of ethics itself). Instead, the term was used by later editors of Aristotle. Aristotle had written several books on matter and physics, and followed those volumes with work on ontology, and other broad subjects. These editors referred to them as â€Å"the books that came after the books on physics† or â€Å"metaphysics†. Aristotle himself refers to metaphysics as â€Å"first philosophy†. This term was also used by some later philosophers, such as Descartes, whose primary work on the subject of metaphysics is called Meditations on First Philosophy. * Branches of Metaphysics The main branches of metaphysics are: Ontology Cosmology Epistemology Epistemology is the area of philosophy that is concerned with knowledge. The main concerns of epistemology are the definition of knowledge, the sources of knowledge (innate ideas, experience, etc. , the process of acquiring knowledge and the limits of knowledge. Epistemology considers that knowledge can be obtained through experience and/or reason. It is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge and is also referred to as theory of knowledge. It questions what knowledge is and how it can be acquired, and the extent to which any given subject or entity can be known. Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth, belief, and justification. * Defining Knowledge A primary concern of epistemology is the very definition of knowledge itself. The traditional definition, since Plato, is that knowledge is justified true belief, but recent evaluations of the concept have shown supposed counterexamples to this definition. In order to fully explore the nature of knowledge and how we come to know things, the various conceptions of what knowledge is must first be understood. * Sources of Knowledge The sources of knowledge must also be considered. Perception, reason, memory, testimony, introspection and innate ideas are all supposed sources of knowledge. Are they equally reliable? * Scepticism There also seems to be reason to doubt each of these sources of knowledge. Could it be that all knowledge is fallible? If that is the case, do we really know anything? This is the central question to the problem of scepticism. Logic Logic has two meanings: first, it describes the use of valid reasoning where it is used in most intellectual activities, including philosophy and science, or, second, it describes the study of modes of reasoning (those which are valid, and those which are fallacious). It is primarily studied in he disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. It examines general forms that arguments may take. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language. Logic is also studied in argumentation theory. Logic was studied in several ancient civilizations, including India, China, Persia and Greece. In the West, logic was established as a formal discipline by Aristotle, who gav e it a fundamental place in philosophy. The study of logic was part of the classical trivium, which also included grammar and rhetoric. In the East, logic was developed by Buddhists and Jainists. Logic is often divided into three parts, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning, and deductive reasoning. Aesthetics Aesthetics (also spelled ? sthetics) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as critical reflection on art, culture and nature. More specific aesthetic theory, often with practical implications, relating to a particular branch of the arts is divided into areas of aesthetics such as art theory, literary theory, film theory and music theory. â€Å"Beauty is in the eye of the beholder† There are two basic standings on the nature of beauty: objective and subjective judgement. Subjective judgement of beauty suggests that beauty is not t he same to everyone — that which aesthetically pleases the observer is beautiful (to the observer). Alternatively, those partial to the objective description of beauty try to measaure it. They suggest that certain properties of an object create an inherent beauty — such as symmetry and balance. Both Plato and Aristotle supported the objective judgement. Some, such as Immanuel Kant, took a middle path, holding that beauty is of a subjective nature, but there are qualities of beauty which have universal validity. * Classical and Modern Aesthetics The classical concepts behind aesthetics saw beauty in nature, and that art should mimic those qualities found in nature. Aristotles Poetics describes this idea, which he develops from Platos teachings. Modern aesthetic ideas, including those of Kant, stress the creative and symbolic side of art — that nature does not always have to guide art for it to be beautiful. Ethics Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The term comes from the Greek word ethos, which means character. Ethics is a complement to Aesthetics in the philosophy field of Axiology. In philosophy, ethics studies the moral behavior in humans and how one should act. Ethics may be divided into four major areas of study: Meta-ethics, about the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions and how their truth values (if any) may be determined; Normative ethics, about the practical means of determining a moral course of action; Applied ethics, about how moral outcomes can be achieved in specific situations; Descriptive ethics, also known as comparative ethics, is the study of peoples beliefs about morality; Ethics seeks to resolve questions dealing with human morality—concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime. Political philosophy Political philosophy is the study of such topics as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever. In a vernacular sense, the term political philosophy often refers to a general view, or specific ethic, political belief or attitude, about politics that does not necessarily belong to the technical discipline of philosophy. In short, political philosophy is the activity, as with all philosophy, whereby the conceptual apparatus behind such concepts as aforementioned are analyzed, in their history, intent, evolution and the like. Social philosophy Social philosophy is the philosophical study of questions about social behavior (typically, of humans). Social philosophy addresses a wide range of subjects, from individual meanings to legitimacy of laws, from the social contract to criteria for revolution, from the functions of everyday actions to the effects of science on culture, from changes in human demographics to the collective order of a wasps nest.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Regulatory Frameworks for Financial Reporting

Regulatory Frameworks for Financial Reporting Discuss the reasons why we need a regulatory framework for financial reporting. What are the advantages and disadvantages of making accounting rules by law as opposed to using IASB standards? The body of rules which determine how financial accounts will be compiled in any particular situation are known as the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP); these are drawn from a number of sources. The first of these are legal; the main sources of these include the Companies Act 2006, as well as EU Law and the remainder of the UK common law. The second strand of this includes national and international accounting standard such as the ASB and IASB (International Accounting Standards Board) standards, as set by the Accounting Standards Board and their international equivalent; they will also work to establish public opinion on proposed new standards, and use seminars to discuss issues within accounting. The third strand is comprised of the rules of the Stock Exchanges, though these are only applicable to companies listed on the LSE or AIM. The major argument in favour of a regulatory framework is that standardisation is encouraged and, through this, we are able to make an accurate assessment of financial health. As Alexander and Britton point out, before the introduction of these standards, different firms in similar situations were following different accounting standards, leading to different and incompatible results (Alexander and Britton, 2004). Indeed, when takeovers occurred, different valuations taken by accountants could potentially generate vastly different results, given the uncertainty as to what to include: this, in turn, was bad fro the reputation of the accounting profession. The framework, in the shape of both law and accounting standards, allows for the element of subjectivity to be lessened. Further advantages of the current regulatory framework include increasing level of information for the end user, through stipulating minimum standards of disclosure; in addition, the current system benefits through input both from government (in statute, for example), and from the accountancy profession, which arguably works to ensure a balance of interests. However, within this, we then face a choice between regulation by statute and regulation through accounting standards, each with their relative merits and demerits. I shall discuss these in turn. The first advantage is that accounting standards act as a way of reducing the disparate methods by which one may create accounts; this, in turn, makes the account of greater benefit to the end user, given that they have a document which is easily comparable to others of the same kind. Without such a standardisation, there is a risk that different firms of accountant may have chosen to classify a particular type of asset or debt in a different way. Alexander and Britton (2004) demonstrates this through the example of property how is this to be valued? We might argue that it should retain the value for which it is bought; alternatively, we could say that the value should be this, minus depreciation; or thirdly, we could say that the value (given that prices of property will almost always be rising) should be the original price plus an inflationary multiplier. This is just one example, and taken over a large company, the potential for fluctuations is substantial. In an internationalise d economy, this value is correspondingly increased; Zeff (2007) remarks that the introduction of international standards has led to a very great increase in global comparability in relation to what we had before, namely, every country using its own national standards, which differed considerably from country to country. Indeed, Haller and Walton (2003) describe this as the nub of the international accounting problem. How do companies that want to operate across national (and therefore usually cultural) boundaries convey economic information appropriate for business decisions? Secondly, they provide a focal point for debate over what accepted practice should be. At present, it has occasionally been argued that accounting standards are not based on any coherent conceptual framework, but rather exist simply as rules in themselves (Alexander and Britton, 2004). The IASB is a body well-poised to correct such a problem: thus, in recent years, the IASB has launched a project to develop an improved common conceptual framework that provides a sound foundation for developing future accounting standards. It is difficult to imagine Parliament giving time to such a broad yet arguably essential task. Thirdly, on much the same basis, it may be argued that accounting standards are much less rigid than relevant legislation; each change to legislation will require a separate bill to proceed through Parliament, in contrast to accounting standards. Thus, the maintenance of accounting standards provides a body of rules that create standardisation while simultaneously lacking a legalistic rigidity. In addition, the true and fair view can be used when justifiable to override other accounting standards which may apply (Fearnley and Hines, 2003). Fourthly, it can be seen that the introduction of accounting standards have encouraged companies to make available more information than they otherwise would have. Examples of this can be seen in, for example, Robins remarks that FRS 3 (on reporting financial performance), requiring companies to highlight a range of different financial performance indicators (such as the results of continuing operations and discontinued operations) which allow a greater level of information than if simply profit were indicated (Robins, 1999). Through requiring enhanced disclosure of information, it can be argued that accounting standards create a greater standard of information to the end user, and thus the value of accounting in general. Fifthly, it may be viewed as an advantage that the guidelines are created by people with a strong connection to the industry; that is, professional accountants. Statutes such as the Companies Act are inevitably subject to party political pressures: and, in despite their best intentions, Members of Parliament are unlikely to have the same level of expertise as people with vast experience in their field. A further point is that when Parliament drafts legislation, it will intend for it to be applied by the courts; it would therefore be more difficult to create comprehensive standards in such a way than it would be to do so through a body comprised of accountants, creating standards for accountants. We may conclude that a system based on professional considerations is more likely to provide an accurate assessment of an institution. On the other hand, there are a number of corresponding criticisms. Firstly, requiring additional information, and for institutions to comply with certain standards, will inevitably lead to an increase in costs; checking that a set of accounts adheres to a particular set of standards will be require more work than simply taking an ad hoc approach. In addition, each new set of standards will entail its own costs for example, in re-training accountants who had become used to different standards. Secondly, it may be argued that these guidelines are increasing in volume and complexity. Indeed, a letter from the International Corporate Governance Network to the IASB asked whether some instruments are so complex and unstable that not only is portraying things by one number insufficient, but the users of accounts and stakeholders would be better served by the recognition that there may not an answer. Thus in certain areas, complexity will firstly make the standards more difficult to enforce , but also perhaps create inappropriate results, as they are inappropriate to the particular context. This is a particularly strong criticism if we consider that the economic case for the regulatory framework is perhaps unproven: The case for uniformity in accounting is not based on any settled body of evidence, or literature (Bell, 2005). Thirdly, the fact that the guidelines are both set and disciplined by the accounting profession means that there may be no effective method of enforcing the standards this is in contrast to any statutory system, which will be enforceable through the courts. Where professional accountants are involved, the only sanction for breach of these guidelines would appear to be through professional bodies, which have been slow to do so (Lewis and Pendrill, 2003). This is a particular problem, considering that (as seen above), part of the argument for accounting standards is in fact to uphold the reputation of the profession. In addition (and as Lewis and Pendrill point out), many accounting standards deal with issues which in a democratic society, should arguably be subject to democratic controls: the example given is that of FRS 17 (Retirement Benefits), which stated that deficits in a company pensions scheme were to be treated as expenses on the profit and loss account. This is an issue of national importance. Finally, requiring further standardisation means that there will be a trend towards rigidity in financial reporting; it has long been feared that this will lead to accounting becoming a process of rote learning of rules, without searching for any meaning within them. (Baxter, 1962) Thus, although there will be a standardised system, this will not necessarily be one in which these rules have principled bases; at the same time, such standards remove any opportunity for individual judgment or discretion.. In addition, a rigid set of standards will not be appropriate in every situation to which they might be applied; for example, the property industry protested the application of SSAP 12 to property since its introduction (Andrew and Pitt, 2006; SSAP19 was later introduced to cover this). It may even be that an emphasis on rules over judgment distorts the realities of a given situation the experience of FRS5 has shown that judgement-based accounting can operate successfully to report ec onomic reality in a situation where previously there had been an over-reliance on rules (ICAS, 2006). In conclusion, while there is a clear value in standardisation (in that accounts, through being created from the same standards, are more reliably comparable), it would appear that there are certain conflicts. The first is between expertise and control: to what extent should Parliament allow standards boards to create their own rules, benefitting from their own experience, and to what extent should their own political persuasions have a role? The same problem applies in enforcement allowing the accounting industry the opportunity to enforce their own rules gives them the independence to enforce them using their own expertise, but otherwise could lead to charges of indifference to their own wrongdoing. Secondly, there is a conflict between standardisation and complexity; though the aim of standardisation would perhaps be best served by standards covering every possible eventuality, these would be so lengthy and comprehensive as to be unworkable; to some extent, we must rely on broade r principles. The relative merits of each of the relevant methods will therefore depend on the approach we take towards each of these conflicts.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Essay --

The Journey of Knowledge In David Northrup’s Africa’s discover of Europe, he gives an overview of the encounter between Africans and Europeans from 140-1850. Africans played a huge role of the globalizing of cultural and economic transactions. The first encounters between the two continents were mutual. Both parties tried to gain from each other through their transactions. The purpose of this book is to inform readers that we shouldn’t look at Africans as the victim, rather as an active contributor in the African-European relation. Early encounters of Africans in the Western world and Europeans in Africa began to change the societies in Europe and Africa. The fifteenth century â€Å"marks the beginning of an era of continuous and increasing interactions between the two continents and their cultures† (Northrup 2). Also, â€Å"commercial and cultural interactions grew both Africans and Europeans made many adjustments in their ideas of each other† (2). In other words, the depictions of Africans in Europe began to change as Africans became more common in Europe, and â€Å"Africans were also expanding their knowledge and understanding of Europe† (3). One important aspect of the encounter between European and African precolonial nations was trade. Before the European voyages of exploration in the fifteenth century, African rulers and merchants had formed a trade link between the Mediterranean world and within the continent, there were local exchanges among regional neighbors which will later conn ect themselves in long range trade. For example, the supply of slaves from Africa into the Mediterranean Europe was increasing in the thirteenth and fourteenth century; â€Å"the number of â€Å"black† was rising among the Slavic and North African slave populations ... ...slave societies that emerged on Saint Louis and Gorà ©e. The emergence of slave societies created slave-owning merchants: â€Å"Gorà ©e and Saint Louis developed from a small society of signares, French merchants, and slaves into an urban slave society dominated by a slave-owning class of habitants† (Searing 107) due to the fact that slave society was an independent society from the Atlantic merchants and the habitants became obligatory intermediaries in the trade between the islands and the mainland (107). The urban slave population contained high proportion of skilled laborers and native born slaves who were less likely to revolt or run away (104). In conclusion, the relation between Africans and Europeans were mostly mutual. Africans should not be seen as victims of slavery as both parties profited and lost from each other, and were both victims in the Atlantic economy.

Friday, October 11, 2019

George Washington Biography Essay

George Washington (1732 – 1799), the First President of the United States, is a prominent individual of the American history. He was commander in chief of the victorious Continental army of the American Revolution and won many important battles that helped the Americans defeat the British. During his presidential terms, he set many important precedents for the following Presidents, such as having Presidential Cabinet Members. He was nicknamed for his accomplishments as the â€Å"Father of His Country†. George Washington was born on Feb. 22, 1732 in Westmoreland County, Virginia on an estate along the Potomac River. He was the oldest son of Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington. When Washington was eleven, his father died and left only himself, his mother and his five other brothers and sisters. After the his father’s death, Washington could not go to school because he needed to help at the family farm to acquire enough money for his family to live. In his free time he practiced land surveying for fun with his father’s tools. Later, Washington started his occupation as a surveyor. When Washington turned 16, he surveyed lands of the Shenandoah for Thomas, Lord Fairfax. After his half-brother, Lawrence, had died, Washington inherited the farm and large amount of land at Mount Vernon, Virginia. Also, Lawrence was adjutant of the colony so Washington took over this responsibility. As district adjutant, he was referred to as Major Washington and was had trained the militia in the quarter he was assigned to. He first gained public awareness by being adjutant of Virginia and was sent off to warn the French to stop additional intrusion on the land of the northern colonies. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1754 to carry out this task and he departed to the North. Washington found out that the French already had a set up a fort and had a large number of soldiers camped, so he quickly built Fort Necessity. However, the French surrounded and attacked Fort Necessity. The French captured Washington in this attack. Luckily, Washington was released based on the earlier agreements of the British and French. These first several battles fought were the beginnings of the French and Indian War. The next  year, Washington volunteered to be the aide of General Edward Braddock because he was discouraged and angered by the defeat. At that time, Washington tried to convince Braddock to use the style of fighting of the Native Americans, but Braddock disagreed and used the regular fighting technique. Braddock was mortally wounded in this battle and Washington was nearly injured because of four bullets that ripped his coat and two horses that were shot from under him. After the French and Indian War, Washington was 26 years old and fell in love with Martha Dandridge Custis. She was a wealthy widow with her two children, Martha â€Å"Patsy† and John Parke. They married and moved to Mount Vernon where Lawrence once lived. Washington was very successful in farming there. While they lived in Mount Vernon, Washington was a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses from 1759 to 1774 and he strongly against the British Stamp Act and the Townsend Act which set taxes on many products. Washington like many others did not buy these taxed products and boycotted them. In the middle of 1774, Washington thought that the many British laws were striving to stop self-government within the colonies and were attempting to have tyrannical rule over the colonies as the King had over England. Washington was one of the few that proposed of a continental congress to be held to govern the colonies. He was elected to be a delegate of Virginia for the First Continental Congress. The Congress created a new government devoted to overthrow unfair rule of Britain. The Second Continental Congress joined together on May 10, 1775, after the fighting of Lexington and Concord had took place. Surrounded by almost 14,000 of Massachusetts’s soldiers, the British army was trapped in Boston. The British government announced that Massachusetts had committed treason after this rebellion, and were trying to take over MA. Washington appeared at the Second Congress in full uniform conveying the message that he was in support of Massachusetts. Congress created the Continental Army for this reason to fight the British. Washington was unanimously elected as general and commander in chief of the army. As commander of the Continental Army, Washington’s actions were left to him because the Congress could not provide laws to help. Washington was given  full power to do anything with authority to improve the service. As General, Washington lost many battles such as the Battle of Long Island but Washington learned from his many experiences and he began to have many successes such as the Battle of Saratoga which was the turning point of the Revolutionary War. The colonies in this war had a great number of help from other countries, such as France, and Washington became good friends with Marquis de Lafayette. This war was won by the help of the French and Washington’s expertise. After the war, Washington left the power of general and returned back to Mount Vernon to be with his wife. Washington became President on April 30, 1789. Washington did not have any examples to follow of previous Presidents since he was the first. One of the first precedents that Washington set was to have only two terms in office. This precedent was followed until 1940. Another was to have the Cabinet contain two leaders of different ideas to balance the Cabinet. Washington appointed John Jay as the Chief Justice because Washington felt he was most suitable. In the Whiskey Rebellion, Washington sent many soldiers to stop the farmers from revolting and the farmers instantly stopped. Washington also pardoned the farmers for their actions because the government’s strength was already shown. This event is very similar to Shay’s Rebellion, but the swift ending of the Whiskey Rebellion showed that the Constitution worked well and strong. In the Spirit of Cincinnatus, Washington left his power after being the General of the Continental Army, and after the Presidency to go back to his farm at Mount Vernon. Each morning he rode his large farm on horseback. Sometimes he rode fifteen miles north of Mount Vernon to watch the building of a new city. The city would be the capital of the United States, named after him, as Washington D.C. Washington died at Mount Vernon of a throat infection in December 14, 1799, after he made his last tour of his property on horseback in the winter weather. It has been said that George Washington was, â€Å"First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.†

Thursday, October 10, 2019

A Lesson before Dying: What Makes an Educated Man? Essay

A Lesson before Dying is a memorable novel, set in Bayone, Louisiana in the 1940’s, about an uneducated, illiterate black man, Jefferson, who is falsely accused of murder and sentenced to death. While on trial, his defense attorney likened him to a hog, calling him nothing more than a fool and a cornered animal. Jefferson’s godmother wants him to become a man before he dies. She persuades two men, Grant Wiggins and Reverend Ambrose, to visit with Jefferson and teach him what it means to be a man. While both men desire the same outcome, they disagree about what it means to be an educated man. Grant believes that his college degree gives him all the knowledge he needs. However, Reverend Ambrose believes that being educated goes deeper that reading, writing, and arithmetic. Grant Wiggins, the son of plantation workers, returns to his hometown after attending college with an attitude that his education somehow sets him apart the other black men living in his community. He becomes a plantation teacher, completing the cycle of returning to his roots. While he is outraged with how other blacks are treated, he does not use his education to help the cause. Instead, he becomes angry and bitter. He does not believe he can help Jefferson and he does not want to get involved: â€Å"What do I say to him? Do I know what a man is? Do I know how a man is supposed to die? I’m still trying to find out how a man should live. Am I supposed to tell someone how to die who has never lived? † (Gaines 31) Reverend Ambrose is a black preacher, determined to preach the gospel and lead people to salvation and an afterlife with Christ. Reverend Ambrose wants the blacks in his community to live peacefully with the whites and to rise up from the ashes of slavery. He is kind and compassionate and lives a humble life. While he is not educated like Grant, he is very wise to the realities of life. He believes that his knowledge of people makes him more educated than Grant. Reverend Ambrose believes that Grant looks down on him, because he is uneducated. He is determined to put Grant in his place by calling him â€Å"boy† and telling him what he thinks of him, â€Å"When you act educated, I’ll call you Grant. I’ll even call you Mr. Grant, when you act like a man. † (Gaines 216) Reverend Ambrose is angry that Grant does not really see what Tante Lou has done for him. He is frustrated that with all of Grant’s education he still does not understand his people: â€Å"Cause reading, writing, and ‘rithmetic is not enough. You think that’s all they sent you to school for? They sent you to school to relieve pain, to relieve hurt–and if you have to lie to do it, then you lie. You lie and you lie and you lie†¦ You tell them that ’cause they have pain too, and you don’t want to add yours–and you lie. † (Gaines 218) Reverend Ambrose understands why Tante Lou made sacrifices to send Grant to college. She wanted Grant to return home and make a difference for his people. It makes Reverend Ambrose angry that someone as educated as Grant cannot really see how people really feel. Reverend Ambrose believes that it is better to lie in order to prevent others from hurting. He wants Grant to reassure Jefferson of the existence of Heaven. He wanted Grant to lie and say he believed in God and Heaven: â€Å"I won’t let you sent that boy’s soul to hell. † He did not want Grant to acknowledge to Jefferson his lack of faith in God. He wants a dying man to have the hope of an afterlife that was better than his life here. Reverend Ambrose could not understand how an educated man would take away the hope of a man that set to be executed. While it would be easy to argue that Reverend Ambrose not as educated as Grant, one cannot overlook the fact that his worldly knowledge goes far deeper than Grant’s. He understands the depths of people’s souls, and knows how to comfort and led them to knowledge and truth. Grant, on the other hand, is naive about other’s feelings. His education lacks real life knowledge, as well as the ability to interact with people. Reverend Ambrose sees where Grant is lacking and believes that until he opens his eyes and heart to those around him, he will never truly be educated. Works Cited Gaines, Ernest J. A Lesson before Dying. New York: First Vintage Contemporaries, 1994. Print.

Sketches by Boz – Charles Dickens

Sketches by Boz â€Å"The Streets – Morning† The Victorian London streets is a familiar setting of Dicken's works with â€Å"Oliver Twist† and â€Å"A Christmas Carol† being some his most memorable works. In this passage Dickens offers the reader an alternative London, one without the energetic crowds but instead a much more disquieting place where the streets are dull and lifeless. We are met with a silent neighbourhood before the sun has risen and through the use of characters, setting and comparisons the reader receives a rich picture of the sunless streets.The passage begins with the introduction of the Victorian London scene on a summer morning. The reader is taken by surprise by the opening sentence where â€Å"The streets of London on a summer's morning† are described to be â€Å"most striking†. Dickens' interesting choice of words places the pre-dawn London scene in the summer, a time of warmth and sun, however we are offered a ninete enth century London that is typically portrayed with a bleak, grey backdrop.Few people roam this neighbourhood apart from those â€Å"whose unfortunate pursuits of pleasure, or scarcely less unfortunate pursuits of business, cause them to be well acquainted with the scene. † This leads to the belief that each summer's morning starts off like this, colourless and melancholy; the people who happen to be awake at this dreary hour are the rogues who remain. Each just as depressed as the other, and both's search for something more than the blind acceptance of a morose existence the cause of their endurance of this sad atmosphere.It is quiet with â€Å"an air of cold solitary, desolation about the noiseless streets† and the buildings are â€Å"quiet† and â€Å"closely-shut†. It is empty and through the buildings it is shown how lifeless the location is with everything closed off from the outside world, preventing any chance of exposure to the dismal air. Throug hout the day the roads are â€Å"swarming with life and bustle† the comparison of their appearance early in the morning is â€Å"very impressive†.The impression that they leave is one of sadness, something that one who has observed the area at each time will remember due to the vast differences. Dickens shows that this time of day is for the most unruly of people with the impoverished clearing out of the neighbourhood and â€Å"the more sober and orderly part of the population† not yet awakened. Emphasis is put on how miserable the roads are at predawn to the point they are practically uninhabitable, except by those with nowhere else to go.Dickens draws attention to the places where there would typically be masses of people; â€Å"The coach-stands in the larger thoroughfares are deserted; the night-houses are closed; and the chosen promenades of profligate misery are empty. † This creates an image of ghostlike platforms and buildings, usually brimming wit h life and movement during the day, now empty with even the degenerates tucked away. Despite the forbidding, dead mood that permeates throughout the area, the weather is still warm and humid; â€Å"a partially opened bedroom-window here and there, bespeaks the heat of the weather†.Through the hot weather, the atmosphere becomes tense and heavy, and with this tension there is â€Å"sickness† and the â€Å"uneasy† which contributes a feeling of claustrophobia to the passage, making the reader feel the discomfort of the scene. The Victorian London presented to the reader by Dickens is a grim and deserted place where few dare to walk the streets. The rich description of the scene places great emphasis on the lack on habitation and the grey city, and the depression within it before the sun rises.Dickens' use of language in this piece is memorable for his emphasis on several words and phrases, his literary techniques convey the dreariness of the passage and the street scene. The oxymoron of the words â€Å"unfortunate† and â€Å"pleasure† indicates the futility of trying to find happiness on a predawn London street through with the pursuit of pleasure still unpromising. Tautology places extra stress on words with the same meaning such as â€Å"cold, solitary, desolation† conveying to the reader the lonely frigidity of this area of London before sunrise.The awkward juxtaposition at the end of the first paragraph signifies the unease of one in the streets; â€Å"and over the quiet, closely-shut buildings, which throughout the day are swarming with life and bustle, that is very impressive†. With the unusual order of words the reader feels the discomfort that is present in the neighbourhood at this unpleasant time. A play on words with the drunken man who â€Å"staggers heavily along† with â€Å"the burden of the drinking song. † This can translate to the heavy burden of being drunk and having to find one's way home in such state. Dickens' clever phraseology is highly ffective, managing to send the message to the reader with out being too overt, allowing for the text to flow. Alliteration is ever present in the narrative with â€Å"the drunken, the dissipated and the wretched have disappeared† serving as a notable example. The harsh â€Å"D† sounds gives way to the austerity of the streets and slows down the reading of the sentence. Through the placement of â€Å"wretched† in between â€Å"drunken†, â€Å"dissipated† and â€Å"disappeared† focus falls on wretched, thus becoming the strongest word in the sentence to describe the usual patrons within this neighbourhood.Sibilance in the sentence â€Å"the stillness of death is over the streets† evokes the sensation of the silence in the London scene, with the central word â€Å"death† giving it an air of eeriness. The overall colour of the passage is sunless. It begins at predawn bef ore the sun has risen, creating imagery of darkness and changes very little as it progresses eventually leading to the â€Å"grey, sombre light of daybreak† and death is gives it's shade to the streets with â€Å"it's very hue† imparted to them.The colourlessness of the extract links back to the mood of the time, and it's solemn tone with the typical image of nineteenth century London easily visualised. Dickens' style and techniques build up the depression and add discomfort through repetition and the use of sounds and sentence structures, these subtle additions manage to express the solitude on this particular London summer's morning. Recurring themes of loneliness, poverty and vapidity carry the tone of this piece, through these Dickens' communicates the melancholy and dejection faced an hour before sunrise.The loneliness of the streets is continuously referred to with mention of it's situation during the day where it is â€Å"thronged at other times by a busy, eage r, crowd†. By contrasting alternative times Dickens shows the differences between dawn and the day, this relates back to the torpor felt before the sun has risen. When introducing the drunk and the homeless man, they are referred to as â€Å"the last†. The finality of the statement shows that these men are the final remnants of life on the street and when they retire to their hollows then there shall be nothing left but the cold misery.Destitution is conveyed through the â€Å"drunken man† and the â€Å"houseless vagrant†; one who's sorrows has made him look for pleasure in â€Å"the drinking song† and the other whom â€Å"penury and police have left in the streets†. The consonance in â€Å"penury and police† uses the sharp â€Å"P† to place significance on the two things that the beggar would fear the most. There is a pang of sympathy felt for him having to coil â€Å"up his chilly limbs in some paved corner, to dream of food and warmth† and one pities him even more to be left in the dreadful neighbourhood only finding peace when the sun is about to rise.However it further adds to the scene as he has become a part of it. Pre-dawn's remaining occupants are compared with the â€Å"more sober and orderly part of the population† confirming that they are on the lower end of the population, unfit to be seen by the light of day. A lack of life is evident in the location that Dickens illustrates. The â€Å"occasional policeman† is the last man standing, yet he is â€Å"listlessly gazing on the deserted prospect before him† unable to muster up energy to do his duty as he has been so swamped by depression, with no expectations for the rest of the day. A rakish-looking cat runs stealthily across the road†, changing the setting adding a brief flash of excitement. The cat is lively and cunning, he has retained his sense even in this dismal place. When compared with the lethargic polic e man and the uncoordinated drunk his wile is impressive and full of life amongst the somber scene. â€Å"The houses of habitation† present â€Å"no signs of life† another contradiction with even the place where people are living are inanimate.All is silent on this sad poverty stricken street and Dickens makes use of these features to bring out the crippling depression. â€Å"The Streets – Morning† by Charles Dickens presents us with a bleak London scene before dawn overwhelmed with wretchedness and misery. The cold tone and bleak setting described provides the reader with the image of an unhappy place void of any hope for it's inhabitants. Through comparisons and contrast of the lively crowd of the day and the grave souls before the sunrise the reader feels the melancholy of the Victorian street. Ilyana Bell