Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Vision Statement Essay The 21st century is shaped by the eclectic interplay of political, cultural, social, economic, environmental, moral and other factors; The rapid development and change of factors like globalization, technological explosion, the impact of supranational organizations, changing economic and demographic patterns all work together to define and shape the 21st centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s events, decisions and goals. These factors shape the agenda and inform opinions in the 21st century.In the face of all these forces one cannot afford to be ignorant and negligent of the trends. I have to analyze the current trends, and extrapolate/project myself into the future. While I may not be accurate in my predictions, I believe at least I will have a somewhat reliable guide in the goals I set. I agree that things will seldom turn out as we anticipate them to. When we allow ourselves the marginal error, we put ourselves at a safer position not to suffer disappointments. To me, the major thing is not to be accur ate but to be within the bracket of correctness; to remain competitively relevant on the global map. For I am aware that if I do not endeavor to remain relevant, I risk suffering obsoleteness just like the revolutionizing science of Einstein made some Newtonian ideas obsolete and totally irrelevant. My values should be able to fit within the larger picture of the globe.I seek to ensure that my values, despite the decay we are witnessing, will be described at least by majority as not the best but excellent. While the rapid civilization is causing a moral catastrophe, my moral sanity is vital and I will not allow whatever aspect of life to corrupt it. I will jealousy guard it. When it comes to my moral vision, IÃ¢â¬â¢m certain my ideals of what is morally excellent will stand the test of time.Everyone will agree that it is not possible to predict all possible developments just as Castells says, we use past experience to envision possible future scenarios. I am working hard to stay a lert to keep a breast with the rapid changes. Jim pinto says Ã¢â¬Å"just as America come to prominence in the early decades of the 20th century, china, India, and other developing countries are coming alive Ã¢â¬ ¦ America needs to re-structure and re-energize at home to compete in the new global environmentÃ¢â¬ Re-shaping the world in the 21st century). This tells me how I should remain constantly progressive, otherwise, even if I on the right track, I stop moving, I will get run over. . I have to muster my future. This Excerpt captures how everyone including those in the perceivably most emerging trends otherwise there is the risk of being irrelevant. Nathan (1986), speaks of new technologies as building blocks shaped by forces that cannot be foreseen.I am aware that success takes time and the sustained personal effort and commitment. Looking a head, I see an over whelming case for making that effort. My backgrounds should not jeopardize my focus and my target. Samuelson (1997) says, Ã¢â¬Å"We must remember that our culture and circumstances create the climate for continued technological innovation.Ã¢â¬ A number of predictions are made, which include: 1.Information technologies will become small enough to implant into our bodies. Tiny implanted chips will serve as a combination credit card, passport, drivers license, and personal diary.2. Future offices may look like hotel lobbies or restaurants. While much teamwork can be done remotely with the help of teleconferencing and other communications technologies, many people will still need and want to meet face-to-face. Lobbies, living rooms, outdoor cafes, and other places where people enjoy meeting each other may become the models for the office of tomorrow. Gunn and Burroughs, Mar/Apr 96, p. 24.(3)Temporary help may be a permanent hiring trend. The use of temps in the United States has increased 240% in the past decade and will likely increase as companies look for strategic ways to remain flexible. Just -in-time work may also benefit employees: Job seekers can gain experience in a wider variety of organizational settings, develop more skills, and build up a long list of references. Mar/Apr 96, p. 6, and Barner, p. 16. In the face of globalization, I have to set ambitious but realizable goals.4.Retirement may soon be a thing of the past. Reasons: Most older people need to feel useful, especially after their families no longer demand their daily attention; most jobs no longer require strenuous physical labor; and businesses will seek to retain their experienced older workers.(www.wfs.org/outlook.htm.)Other innovative products that are likely to come up include: Next-generation television, Electronic wallet, Home health monitor, Smart maps and tracking devices, Smart materialssensors that detect stress in bridges, buildings, among others: Weight-control and anti-aging productsranging from genetic cures for baldness to nutritionally enhanced fruits and vegetables; Never-owned, leased-o nly productshigh-definition, wall-sized flat screens for information, communication, and entertainment. With all this emerging technologies, life is bound to be better as anew society emerges. The Interstate Highway Act of 1956 provided for construction. The 42,000-mile interstate highway system represents the largest single civil engineering project in history. The greater mobility provided society by the car resulted in significant changes in social behavior and a decentralization of social activities (Arnold, 1983). I have no reason to not to think of another major invention of a transport system and a mode that may even replace aircrafts or make them appear ineffective. And this is likely to lead to further changes in social behaviors.I am aware that the success or failure of the poor people around me will have a profound influence on my goals and that is fully I do all I can to faster shared commitments and effort with those around me for I knew synergy pays off.Ã Some of th e targets in 21st century include:-Economic well-being a reduction by one-half in the proportion of people living in extreme poverty by 2015 with only 7 years left are we anything near there?-Universal primary education in all countries by 2015. This means there will be more elites and one has to remain watchful to remain competitive in the education world.-Reversing of current environmental resources trends at both global and rational levels by 2015. The Power of Identity (1997, 112), Manuel Castells identifies some facets of environmentalism as a social movement, for instance,Ã¢â¬ Save the Planet groups, such as Green peace, mount campaigns to capture public attention about specific environmental issues (such as the excesses of the whaling industry and destruction of the ozone layer).http://www.unep.org/Geo/geo1/exsum/ex1.htm)Most of these challenges and problems are likely to be solved in the 21st century but certainly in our quest to solve this problems, will culminate in mod ern challenges and problems. I want it that when I overcome one barrier, that will result in another for instance solving environmental riddles should not result in economic declines.Looking at the current position of technology everyone will see a possibility of a technological leap in the next decade or so. New standards of technology are likely to be reached. As I go to bed everyday I only pray that I will not wake up to find myself irrelevant in the world of technology. It is like every thing is getting computerized-we can only hope robots will not replace manpower. This compels me to make my commitment to excellence ranging from technological to economic my private. I am challenged to exceed the rigorous standards in every aspects of life. This then implies that I have to brace up my enthusiasm for lifelong learning and should not be limited to the boundaries of my classroom.Communications technologies that can quickly link all parts of the world have led to the rise of a globa l economy and a global perspective. Nation-states no longer singularly control their monetary policy. The International Monetary Fund can dictate fiscal policies in some Third World nations in the interests of global economic stability.National competitiveness is still a factor in the global arena; nation-states continue to use their regulatory powers to protect their capital and commodities and to promote the interests of multinational corporations that consider the state home base.I see the drastic development as a challenge and opportunity of great worth. Collaboration with those around me is inevitable and must appropriate the available resources to maximize benefits and keep loses as low as possible. The end of isolationist policy of the United States during the Cold War, the growing interdependence of financial and currency markets, the transnationalization of production by both multinational corporations and trade networks all reflect how fast our society is changing.Competit ion is cutthroat and therefore resources and opportunities will be scarce and survival will be for the fittest as Charles Darwin puts it.With the increased agitation for human rights, (http://www.amnesty.org/aboutai/udhr.htm), globalization, environmental awareness, change of focus to development, peace movements and technological explosion, I hope the world will unite more and the civil wars we are witnessing decrease drastically, hoping that Iran will not use its nuclear to destroy the world.I am given to the conviction that the difference between our dreams and their accomplishment is the desire. I have the desire to see the realization of my ideals and writing can hold me back. I will go forth and grab all the opportunities that can help me get there. I envision a life characterized by excellence in all dimensions. I believe success hinges on a passion for excellence. In conclusion, I want to sit when the world lies, to stand when the world sits, when the world stands I want to be the standard.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
English/ Western Civilizations 10 Pre-IB April 15, 2002 Donatello and His Art Revolution Ã¢â¬Å"Our Glory is all the greater since we, with neither precursors nor models, are creating arts and sciences of a kind never seen or heard of beforeÃ¢â¬ (Alberti qtd. in Poeschke). In the Early Renaissance, artists and scholars were incorporating the values and ideals of Ancient Rome and Greece into the growth that became important concepts of the High Renaissance. Donatello made his own place during a time when sculpture was in transition from Gothic traditionalism to classical realism. During the Gothic period, art and sculpture depicted Christian ideas. In Donatello's lifetime (1386? -1466), the patrons of sculpture were still primarily interested in church purposes, but the new trends in style were being influenced by realism. This stylistic realism drew strongly from classical forms to depict human endeavors and emotions. Donatello developed artistic trends appearing at the time by expanding on the humanistic qualities, mastering the depiction of realistic expressio n and perspective in his sculptures, and refusing to compromise his ideals for the sake of conventional patrons. The churchÃ¢â¬â¢s hold on daily life and thought was changing. Even though Donatello was not the only influential artist of the time, some others were Nanni di Banco, Ghiberti, and Brunelleschi; Donatello led them in revolutionizing the ideals of art. In conformance to virtually every other aspect of Renaissance culture, Donatello was a humanist. Webster tells us that humanism is the Ã¢â¬Å"[...] study of classical Greek and Latin literature and culture during the Middle Ages and was one of the factors giving rise to the Renaissance [...] characterized by an emphasis on human interests rather than on the natural world or religionÃ¢â¬ (707). Donatello did first hand research of the Ancient Roman styles. After his friend, Brunelleschi, lost the compe... Free Essays on Donatello Free Essays on Donatello English/ Western Civilizations 10 Pre-IB April 15, 2002 Donatello and His Art Revolution Ã¢â¬Å"Our Glory is all the greater since we, with neither precursors nor models, are creating arts and sciences of a kind never seen or heard of beforeÃ¢â¬ (Alberti qtd. in Poeschke). In the Early Renaissance, artists and scholars were incorporating the values and ideals of Ancient Rome and Greece into the growth that became important concepts of the High Renaissance. Donatello made his own place during a time when sculpture was in transition from Gothic traditionalism to classical realism. During the Gothic period, art and sculpture depicted Christian ideas. In Donatello's lifetime (1386? -1466), the patrons of sculpture were still primarily interested in church purposes, but the new trends in style were being influenced by realism. This stylistic realism drew strongly from classical forms to depict human endeavors and emotions. Donatello developed artistic trends appearing at the time by expanding on the humanistic qualities, mastering the depiction of realistic expressio n and perspective in his sculptures, and refusing to compromise his ideals for the sake of conventional patrons. The churchÃ¢â¬â¢s hold on daily life and thought was changing. Even though Donatello was not the only influential artist of the time, some others were Nanni di Banco, Ghiberti, and Brunelleschi; Donatello led them in revolutionizing the ideals of art. In conformance to virtually every other aspect of Renaissance culture, Donatello was a humanist. Webster tells us that humanism is the Ã¢â¬Å"[...] study of classical Greek and Latin literature and culture during the Middle Ages and was one of the factors giving rise to the Renaissance [...] characterized by an emphasis on human interests rather than on the natural world or religionÃ¢â¬ (707). Donatello did first hand research of the Ancient Roman styles. After his friend, Brunelleschi, lost the compe...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Critically evaluate, in relation to the common law duty of care, the liability of employers for references - Essay Example This document examines the liability of the employers in the process of issuance of references in relation to this law. References are documents given to potential employers addressing the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to determine their suitability for a given job description. Potential employers use it to offers or reject the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s request to obtain a job. Based on this purpose, references are professional documents that carry a lot of weight pertaining to the fact that they can make one get or loose a job and hence economic income. The common law of duty of care is applied in the intervention of conflicts which arise in the process of compiling this document. According to Myers (2011), there are, however, various ramifications involved in the process of giving references, while considering the common law of duty of care. First, the reference is supposed to be accurate while at the same time the employer confines himself within the terms of contract between him/her and empl oyee. If it is alluded in the terms that the trust and confidence must be maintained; and the employer disrespects this by way of disclosing information which depicts lack of trust by the employee then the employer must take full legal liability for having dishonored the terms and conditions of agreement. This on the other hand means the potential employer may suffer for considering the employee because of the hidden misconduct. As such the potential employee may consider seeking legal redress over the misinformation, holding the former employer liable for it. This is due to differences in terms and conditions of contract given by the two employers to the same employee. The major challenge in using this law to intervene in such a situation is that where the employee move from one employer to another with totally different terms and conditions of contract, the law becomes difficult to implement. Eden (2011) asserts that in order to reduce but not absolutely escape the risk of liabili ty for references, employers may refuse to give reference, limit reference to factual matters including dates of employment and job titles or include a disclaimer, i.e. that the reference is given on the basis that the employer accepts no liability which may arise from the reliance on the information therein. But there are guidelines to following considering the ways of reducing the risk of issuing references. The employer does not just decide to adopt one. Absconding from giving reference may not be a choice for the employer since the terms of contract implies it under the considerations. Considerations in the employment situation are promises made by the employer o the employee. They include things that have economic value and do not cover what was given in the past (Jones, 2011). It is an obligation for employers because failure to do so may amount to an individual missing out on employment opportunity. This can be challengeable in the court of law by the employee. Therefore they are obliged to issue recommendation upon request. A disclaimer is usually preferred by the employers. It somehow shields the employer from being victimized by the terms and conditions in his/her own company. It does not however absolutely protect him from legal suit. Disclaimer will be stated by the employer after having specified the employment details of the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
She pitied men always as if they lacked something. How does Woolf contrast masculine and feminine in To the Lighthouse - Essay Example Ramsay. The sentence is thought by Lily Briscoe in the novel and the whole sentence is This sentence clearly shows that the novel, Ã¢â¬Å"To the LighthouseÃ¢â¬ is written with feminist theme in which, the writer wants to depict that men are naturally lacking while on the other hand, women have some power. Mr. Ramsay, who is Mrs. RamsayÃ¢â¬â¢s husband, is a philosopher who has a good reputation on the basis of his knowledge but in the whole novel, he is shown dependent on Mrs. Ramsay. Mr. Ramsay is shown worried about the existence of his work as he thinks at one juncture, Ã¢â¬Å"and his fame lasts how long? It is permissible even for a dying hero to think before he dies how men will speak of him hereafter. His fame lasts perhaps two thousand years. And what are two thousand years? (asked Mr. Ramsay ironically, staring at the hedge).Ã¢â¬ These lines by Mr. Ramsay indicate towards his doubts about the remembrance of his work and himself. All his doubts about his existence and being remembered receive a sense of satisfaction because of Mrs. Ramsay who is always there to help his husband. He while talking to Mrs. Ramsay informs her about his doubts about his work being forgotten and he gets encouraging responses and back up from his wife. Mrs. Ramsay is not shown as a perfect woman but she is always ready to support men and while helping them, she sympathizes with them and tries to find solution to their problems. With Mrs. Ramsay, every character of the novel feels relaxed and comfortable because of her complacent and supportive attitude. She is like a source of support to the other characters of the novel including her husband, who looks a strong person but appears to be very weak before her wife. Mr. Ramsay appears wholly dependent on Mrs. Ramsay for confidence and encouragement. Woolf portrays Mr. Ramsay as a person and a man, who feels himself incomplete without Mrs. Ramsay. Woolf tries
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Film Analysis and Breakdown - Essay Example The filming is a spectacular mix of close up and panoramic shots that encapsulate life before and after the Hurricane. No shot is wasted during the opening sequence, as the view is taken on a journey through two different time periods. Documentaries are often designed to elicit emotion and to tell a story. This opening sequence certainly accomplishes this aim. While there is nothing spoken, the music tells the story. There are great editing features employed here that cut between the massive flooding that occurred when the levees broke, yet we are then cut back to an earlier time when the area was beautiful and life was good. This editing technique provides a comparison and contrast that make the film effective in communicating its intended message. The music itself appears to be carefully chosen as well. Rather than shifting its message and tone, the jazz played during the opening sequence is a consistent representation and reminder of what the Gulf Region was, and hopes to once again become. Finally, the opening sequence has a cut in action that takes us to the present time to begin telling the story that forms the foundation of the film. Two images truly dissolve into one another as the region of old and the region of today is meshed together to pain a vivid picture in the mind of the viewer. That opening sequence is designed to serve as the introduction to a story. It captivates the viewer and leaves them wanting to know more. That is the essence of a good
Friday, November 15, 2019
The Construction Of Masculinity In Mens Magazines Men are increasingly becoming the consumers of ideologies and products once confined to the female domain, such as grooming products and fashion. In particular the increasing publication, and consumption, of magazines that target the male audience has been a strong media influence, such as GQ, Esquire, For Him Magazine (FHM), and, Loaded. In the chapter consuming masculinities: Style, Content and Mens Magazines in the book Men in the mirror, Tim Edwards (1997) discusses the implications of mens magazines for the development of male masculinity. He notes that since the 1980s there has been an increase in magazines that specifically target men, whether this be directly through the inclusion of style-conscious articles, or more general targeting of regular features that may appeal to men, or finally through interest magazines, which do not specifically target men but are mainly concerned with male interests such as technology or cars. During the texts discussion on the cause of the rise in mens magazines, and their influence on male masculinity, Edwards acknowledges the rise in the new man and the new lad in which new forms of masculinities can be argued to be developing within society. However, ultimately, there is a single dominant masculinity that is presented and targeted by mens magazines. Outline: Time Edwards Consuming Masculinities: Style, Content and Mens Magazines The increase in mens magazines in general is due to the social, economic, and political changes during the 1980s and 1990s. Financial advancement of many men, in particular young middle class white males in the professional and primary sectors of employment. A consequence of demographic changes now means that men now live alone or do not have children. Political encouragements of individualism and increasing aspirations from the Thatcher and Major periods. Influential position of womens and gay movements which challenge the notions of heterosexual masculinity. The increasing social acceptance of men to be consumers of their own masculinity, e.g. the male body can be sold, imitated and copied. The style and content of mens magazines appears varied and free-floating but is in fact fixed. Many of the magazines appeal to the affluent, professional, or managerial men in society. Students also comprise a strong readership in mens magazines; however it is important to remember that it is students that will eventually form the next generation of professionals. The majority of male magazines assume the heterosexuality of their readers. The legitimisation of consumption as a socially acceptable male activity as a symbol of success. Mens magazines promote a new form of masculinity which is pre-occupied with consumer-oriented attitudes and practises. Masculinity can be constantly reconstructed through the consumption of identity building activities such as shopping or leisure activities. The development of the New Lad is a continuing development upon the notions of the New Man, in which the new lad embraces masculinity. The new man is characterised as being caring and sharing, on the contrary, the new lad is characterised as being selfish, loutish and enjoys drinking, football and fucking. Literature Review: According to cultural perspectives, masculinity can be understood as providing members of society with a shared understanding of what it means to be a man: what one looks like, how one should behave (Edley and Wetherell, 1996: 106). This is evident in studies which have focused on the analysis of mens magazines, and have found that they frequently present a constructed image of masculinity. As Edley and Wetherell suggest manliness, in other words, is a contested territory; it is an ideological battlefield (1996: 106). Edwards (1997), Boni (2002) and Edley and Wetherell (1996) all acknowledge that there is a crisis of masculinity in which masculinity is being reconstructed and moving away from traditional ideas of men as main role as the breadwinner, and adopting a more consumer masculinity. In such, masculinity is argued to be consuming ideologies and products once confined to the female domain, such as fashion and leisure activates such as shopping. To demonstrate further, the increasing notion of the metrosexual male describes a masculinity which is concerned with looking good, and creating a good presentation of the self. Such a concept, previously would have been confined to the realm of women, and to some degree was seen as an expectation of women to look good for their husbands, this was particularly prominent in the Victorian ideology of gender. However, it is necessary to note that crisis does not necessary mean negative, however a re-negotiation of masculinity within society. In the chapter by Edwards (1997), masculinity is seen as being continually reconstructed in association with the consumer culture in mens magazines. Similarly, Boni (2002) also acknowledges the same in his more recent study of mens magazines. However, Boni, unlike Edwards, acknowledges that men are not simply passive viewers of magazines, but in reality engage in the information presented. In a discussion of the interpretation of health and body representations of masculinity, Boni notes that men may adopt one of three strategies of responding to the presented masculinity. The first response is the reliance strategy in which men rely on the representation of a healthy image for the standard on which to base their own life. Secondly, the reformation strategy allows for the modification of the ideal masculinity in order to fit in with a individuals abilities. Finally, the rejection strategy is adopted by individuals who oppose the masculinity presented. Thus this demonstrates that whil e mens magazines continually present and reconstruct masculinities, it is not a one way process, and in fact men interacts with these representations to fit with their own perceptions of masculinity. Furthermore, the continuing adaptations of masculinity has also generated a change in the male gaze. Previously men were deemed to look and women were to be looked at, however with the flourishing of mens magazines the male gaze has been restructured. Through mens magazines, men have been constructed as objects of desire to be bought and sold, or imitated and copied (Edwards, 1997: 125; Boni, 2002). To illustrate further in a study of mens magazine Mens Health, Boni (2002) noted that images within the magazine were frequently young, lean, muscular male bodies. Thus demonstrating that the male body is presented in mens magazines as something to adopt or aspire to. However, with the advent of the new lad acknowledged by Edwards (1997), a shift towards a separation in masculine ideologies is evident. Edwards describes the new lad as oddly still all too self-conscious and quick to consider the cut of his jeans or the Lacoste label on his T-shirt: in short, his is that most ghastly of all configurations, defensively working class which also means defensively masculine who is interested in drinking, football and fucking, and in that order (1997: 82). In addition Boni also notes the emergence of this concept of masculinity in the increasing range of mens magazines which publish topless women on their front pages, and the extensive range of soft-porn content within the magazines. What is further evident, is the separation of the new lad and the new man, and in which particular magazines target particular individuals. The new lad can be associated with a working class construction of masculinity, thus it can be argued that in recent years there has be en a development in a range of mens magazines to target different sections of society. It is thus evident that masculinity cannot be considered as a singular entity; rather in the referral to mens magazines we should discuss masculinities. While some mens magazines explicitly target and promote a single masculinity, it would be naive to consider this as the only form of masculinity within society. Edley and Wetherell (1996) note that the dominant ideology of masculinity has been enforced by the dominant class within society (i.e. the middle, upper class) through the cultural meanings reinforced through key institution, such as schools, churches, and the media. Thus the development of the new lad could be argued to be a successful attempt to fight against the dominant ideologies of masculinity presented by society. Crosscutting Themes: As has been demonstrated, the construction of masculinity within mens magazines heavily relies on the wider construction of masculinity within society. In particular the changes of the economic position of men during the post-fordism era construct men as moving away for the role of the breadwinner, and towards a more segregated role within society. Thus is is necessary to consider the wider implications of economic changes within society to understand the full impact on masculinity. However, it is important to note that it can be argued that these changes are perceived changes as men still predominantly occupy the higher sectors of employment and still continue to act as a breadwinner within the family, as may womens wages continue to be less than mens. Whats more, the wider constructions of masculinity within the media should be considered, especially in relation to the new construction of fatherhood which sees men as adopting a more caring and supportive role within the family. This therefore contradicts Edwards argument that more men are interested in mens magazines as more are remaining childless, as recent media publicity, and other academic studies, have shown fathers wanting to adopt a more integrated role in the family. To conclude, the construction of masculinity cannot be considered in a vacuum, and the wider impact of other forms of the media, and other constructions of masculinity within society must be acknowledged. Additionally, masculinity does not exist separately for femininity, thus to fully understand the construction on masculinity, it is necessary to understand the construction of femininity. This is particularly important because as it has been demonstrated negotiations are made between the two ideologies about what is acceptable.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Even the most honorable men in history have lose their dreams due to their ambitions, much like Jay Gatsby from The Great Gatsby written by F. Scott Fitzgerald and Macbeth in William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Macbeth. Ambition, usually defines as a positive characteristic. However Ambition also contains many perils since it is excess. In many ways, the similarities and difference in the ambitions of Gatsby and Macbeth lead to their external and internal destructions, and their loss of integrity at earlier and later stages. To begin with, Gatsby and Macbeth both have external destructions to others due to their ambition. Through the story, Gatsby tries to win back the girl of his dream. He would rather ruin the marriage between Tom and Daisy in order to approach his dream girl. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËShe never loved you, do you hear? Ã¢â¬â¢ he cried. Ã¢â¬ËShe only married you because I was poor and she was tired of waiting for me. It was a terrible mistake, but in her heart she never loved anyone except meÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Fitzgerald 131). It shows how GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s ambition of love challenges Tom and his marriage with Daisy. Similar as Gatsby, Macbeth also destroys many people even their lives due to his ambition. Following the prophecy of witches, Macbeth tries to kill everyone who will interfere his kingship, even his comrade Banquo is murdered by his conspiracy. The murder was awarded by Macbeth orally, Ã¢â¬Å"Thou art the best o' th' cutthroats: / Yet heÃ¢â¬â¢s good that did the like for Fleance. / If thou didst it, thou art the nonpareil. Ã¢â¬ (3. 4. 18-20) Thus, Gatsby and Macbeth all destruct others because of their ambitions. Secondly, at the early stages of both two works, Both Gatsby and Macbeth lose their integrities because of their ambitions. Gatsby knows it is important to be rich, because that can attract Daisy, so his methods of becoming rich are that of doing illegal activities and lying about his poor background. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢HeÃ¢â¬â¢s a bootlegger,Ã¢â¬â¢ said the young ladies, moving somewhere between his cocktails and his flowers. Ã¢â¬ (61) For the purpose of approaching Daisy, Gatsby sells illegal alcohols during in the past. Although this is dishonesty, it is the only way to become rich quickly. Just as Gatsby, Macbeth believes the prophecy from the witches that he will one day become a king; as a result, he decides to assassinate Duncan in order to fulfill his ambition faster. After Lady Macbeth motivates Macbeth to murder Duncan, Macbeth says: Ã¢â¬Å"I am settled and bend up / Each corporal agent to this terrible feat. Ã¢â¬ (1. 7. 80-81) The quote reveals that Macbeth has determined to execute the Duncan. Therefore, MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s ambition makes him to lose his integrity. Even though the similarities of external destruction and earlier period of dishonesty both are identified from Gatsby and Macbeth, there are still many differences between them. The internal destructions of Gatsby and Macbeth are quite distinct. Gatsby comes as an inferior beginning. For Gatsby, lying about his identities cannot make him realize that he is slowly destroying himself from the inside. When Nick mentions that Gatsby may not recall his past, Gatsby says that: Ã¢â¬Å"CanÃ¢â¬â¢t repeat the past? Ã¢â¬ ¦ Why of course you can! Ã¢â¬ (111) Gatsby does not feel his personal downfall after he amasses the fortune that he believes now. Unlike Gatsby, Macbeth is at first a loyal general of DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s army. However, his identity falls from a noble man to an evil killer, turning Macbeth into a psychological destruction. Ã¢â¬Å"First, as I am his kinsman and his subject, / Strong both against the dead; then, as his host, / Not bear the knife myself. Ã¢â¬ (1. 7. 13-16) In this soliloquy, Macbeth debates whether he should kill Duncan since he notices the loyalty that he toward his king. Meanwhile, Macbeth admits that he has Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦only / Vaulting ambition, which oÃ¢â¬â¢erleaps itself / And falls on thÃ¢â¬â¢ other. Ã¢â¬ (1. 7. 6-28) Thus, this ambition directly leads to MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s moral destruction. When both Gatsby and Macbeth reach their goal, Gatsby only cheats for what he wants which is Daisy. But Macbeth continues to follow the witchesÃ¢â¬â¢ prediction, and begins to kill more people. Gatsby, in the whole story, lies only in order to convince Daisy that he is the greatest man, in aspects such as wealthy assents, and outstanding education. The conversations between Tom and Gatsby provide that Gatsby cheats his education background. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËBy the way, Mr. Gatsby, I understand youÃ¢â¬â¢re an Oxford man. Ã¢â¬â¢ /Ã¢â¬ËNot exactly. / Ã¢â¬ËOh, yes, I understand you went to Oxford. Ã¢â¬â¢ / Ã¢â¬ËYes Ã¢â¬â I went there. Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (129) Macbeth, however, trusts the prediction firmly later on. He follows the indications, and he lies and kills many innocent people. Ã¢â¬Å" The castle of Macduff I will surprise, / Seize upon Fife, give to thÃ¢â¬â¢ edge oÃ¢â¬â¢ thÃ¢â¬â¢ sword / His wife, his babes, and all unfortunate souls / That trace him in his line. Ã¢â¬ (4. 1. 156-160) When Lennox tells Macbeth that Macduff has fled to England, Macbeth enlightens and resolves to send murderers to capture MacduffÃ¢â¬â¢s castle and to kill MacduffÃ¢â¬â ¢s wife and children. So Gatsby and Macbeth all lose their integrities at the beginning Nevertheless Gatsby maintains his falsity, Macbeth deteriorates his baneful of integrity. Lastly, it can be drawn into a conclusion that ambitions lead both Gatsby and Macbeth to their destruction on other people and themselves, and their loss of integrities in different time periods. Admittedly, ambitions belong to advantageous individualÃ¢â¬â¢s trait; it has conducive effects on personal pursuit. However, ambition also can lead the destruction and dishonesty much like Gatsby and Macbeth if the ambition is unchecked.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The Sherwin-Williams Company Sherwin Williams is the largest manufacturer of paint products in the U. S. It is the most famous painting company in the United States. The Company owns more than 34 factories and 3,200 of their own branded stores, that is why it is considered the largest chain stores in the world of colors. The American company Sherwin-Williams was founded in 1866. Since its establishment, the company made a bid for new technology and innovation. 11 years after its founding in 1877, Sherwin-Williams Company has produced a revolution in the coatings industry, it has patented the manufacture of paint in an airtight jar. Since then the company is a leader in the development of new high-quality coatings based on the latest technologies and unique designs (Sherwin-Williams, 2011). Today, the Company Sherwin-Williams is the largest manufacturer of paint products in the U. S. , it is the most famous brand of paint in America, it is a transnational corporation with a turnover of 8. 02 billion dollars in 2007. Sherwin Williams Paints, known as ones of the highest quality, and therefore they are used for painting historic buildings and landmark buildings. The superiority of Sherwin Williams, among other companies is leadership of its paints in the global market thanks to new technologies, environmental production and exclusive content. Sherwin Williams CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s products meet the highest standards, and especially the line with the brand GreenSure (Hoffman et al. 2010). There are the main features of paints of the company Sherwin Williams. Firstly, paints of this company are not sprayed. Secondly, when applying them to the surface they create smooth surface in the drying process. This is especially evident in comparison with the PVA-based paint or acrylic paint. Thirdly, paints of the company Sherwin Williams are aesthetic and efficient to use. Many of the Sherwin Williams paints can cover the surface with a single fold. This is due to different kinds of primers for different surfaces. The density of the substrate depends on both the paint and the shade. Therefore, Sherwin Williams paints save costs. Sherwin-Williams has and manages more than 2,000 retail trade in its possession. 50% of all its products come from enterprises, the shares of which belong to the corporation. In order to assess the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s risk it is important to understand that risk is the possibility of adverse situations during the implementation of plans and use of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s budget (Doole & Lowe, 2008). The financial risk is the risk of adverse financial consequences in the form of loss of income and capital under uncertainty conditions of its financial activities. Commercial risk, in turn, is the non-realization of purchased goods, failure to price changes, loss of goods, the excess costs of treatment (Allen, 2010). At the present stage one of the main types of financial risks of the enterprise include (Adam, 2008): Ã¢â¬ ¢ Risk reduction of financial stability. This risk is generated by imperfections in the capital structure, generating an imbalance of positive and negative cash flows of the company by volume. As part of the financial risks of the hazard (generated by the threat of bankruptcy), this risk has played a leading role. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The risk of insolvency of the company. This risk reduction is generated by the liquidity of current assets, generating an imbalance of positive and negative cash flows of the company over time. In terms of financial impact this risk is also one of the most dangerous. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Investment risk. It characterizes the possibility of financial losses in the investment activities of the enterprise. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Inflation risk. In an inflationary economy, it stands out as a separate type of financial risks. This type of risk is characterized by the possibility of depreciation of the real cost of capital (in the form of financial assets of the enterprise) as well as the expected income from financial transactions in an inflationary environment. This type of risk under current conditions is permanent and is accompanied by virtually all financial enterprises. Interest rate risk. It is an unexpected change in interest rates in financial markets (both deposit and lending). The cause of this type of financial risk is the change in financial market conditions under the impact of government regulation, growth or decline offers of free cash resources and other factors. Negative financial conseque nces of this type of risk can be observed in the emission of the company in its dividend policy, in short-term investments and other financial transactions. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The credit risk. It takes place in the financial activities of the enterprise in the provision of commodity or consumer loan customers. Its forms is a risk of nonpayment or late payment for a loan now tempered finished products, as well as the excess of the estimated budget for debt collection. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tax risk. This kind of financial risk has several implications: the likelihood of introducing new types of taxes and duties to carry out certain aspects of economic activity, the ability to increase the rates of existing taxes and fees; change the terms and conditions of certain tax payments, the probability abolish existing tax breaks in the field of business enterprise. It has a significant impact on financial performance. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Structural risk. This type of risk is generated by inefficient financing the current costs of the enterprise that contributes to the high proportion of fixed costs in their total amount. High operating leverage ratio under adverse conditions of the commodity market developments and lower gross positive cash flow from operating activities generated a significantly higher rate of decline in the amount of net cash flow for this activity (Sandhusen, 2000; Lasher, 2010). Sherwin-Williams uses long-term debts that directly impact its bonds rating. This estimation has a significant role for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s development since it reflects the position of the company in the market. Moreover, the company has the obligations towards clients and investors and that is why it has to pay attention to the assessed rating of its obligations (McDonald & Mouncey, 2011). Works Cited Adam, Alexandre. Handbook of asset and liability management: from models to optimal return strategies. John Wiley and Sons, 2008. Allen, Judy. Marketing Your Event Planning Business: A Creative Approach to Gaining the Competitive Edge. John Wiley and Sons, 2010. Doole, Isobel & Lowe, Robin. International marketing strategy: analysis, development and implementation. Cengage Learning EMEA, 5th ed. , 2008. Hoffman, Andrew et al. Sherwin Williams: Splashing Into the Low VOC Paint Market. William Davidson Institute At The University of Michigan, The, 2010. Lasher, William. Practical Financial Management. Cengage Learning, 6th ed. , 2010. McDonald, Malcolm & Mouncey, Peter. Marketing Accountability: A New Metrics Model to Measure Marketing Effectiveness. Kogan Page Publishers, 2011. Ogden, James & Rarick, Scott. The Entrepreneur's Guide to Advertising. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Sandhusen, Richard. Marketing. Barron's Educational Series, 3rd ed. , 2000. Sherwin-Williams. History of Sherwin-Williams. 2011. Web Nov. 25, 2011. Standard & Poor's. The Standard & Poor's 500 Guide. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2005. US Fire Administration. Sherwin-Williams Paint Warehouse Fire; Dayton, Ohio. FEMA.
Friday, November 8, 2019
How to Find the Volume in a Test Tube Finding the volume of a test tube or NMR tube is a common chemistry calculation, both in the lab for practical reasons and in the classroom to learn how to convert units and report significant figures. Here are three ways to find the volume. Calculate Density Using Volume of a Cylinder A typical test tube has a rounded bottom, but NMR tubes and certain other test tubes have a flat bottom, so the volume contained in them is a cylinder. You can get a reasonably accurate measure of volume by measuring the internal diameter of the tube and the height of the liquid. The best way to measure the diameter of a test tube is to measure the widest distance between the inside glass or plastic surfaces. If you measure all the way from edge to edge, youll include the test tube itself in your measurements, which isnt correct.Measure the volume of the sample from where it starts at the bottom of the tube to the base of the meniscus (for liquids) or the top layer of the sample. Dont measure the test tube from the bottom of the base to where it ends. Use the formula for the volume of a cylinder to perform the calculation: V Ãâ¬r2h where V is volume, Ãâ¬ is pi (about 3.14 or 3.14159), r is the radius of the cylinder and h is the height of the sample The diameter (which you measured) is twice the radius (or radius is one-half diameter), so the equation may be rewritten: V Ãâ¬(1/2 d)2h where d is diameter Example Volume Calculation Lets say you measure an NMR tube and find the diameter to be 18.1 mm and height to be 3.24 cm. Calculate the volume. Report your answer to the nearest 0.1 ml. First, youll want to convert the units so theyre the same. Please use cm as your units, because a cubic centimeter is a milliliter! This will save you trouble when it comes time to report your volume. There are 10 mm in 1 cm, so to convert 18.1 mm into cm: diameter (18.1 mm) x (1 cm/10 mm) [note how the mm cancels out]diameter 1.81 cm Now, plug in the values into the volume equation: V Ãâ¬(1/2 d)2hV (3.14)(1.81 cm/ 2)2(3.12 cm)V 8.024 cm3 [from the calculator] Because there is 1 ml in 1 cubic centimeter: V 8.024 ml But, this is unrealistic precision, given your measurements. If you report the value to the nearest 0.1 ml, the answer is: V 8.0 ml Find the Volume of a Test Tube Using Density If you know the composition of the contents of the test tube, you can look up its density to find the volume. Remember, density equal mass per unit volume. Get the mass of the empty test tube. Get the mass of the test tube plus the sample. The mass of the sample is: mass (mass of filled test tube) Ã¢â¬â (mass of empty test tube) Now, use the density of the sample to find its volume. Make sure the units of density are the same as those of the mass and volume you want to report. You may need to convert units. density (mass of sample) / (volume of sample) Rearranging the equation: Volume Density x Mass Expect error in this calculation from your mass measurements and from any difference between the reported density and the actual density. This usually happens if your sample isnt pure or the temperature is different from the one used for the density measurement. Finding the Volume of a Test Tube Using a Graduated Cylinder Notice a normal test tube has a rounded bottom. This means using the formula for theÃ volume of a cylinder will produce an error in your calculation. Also, its tricky trying to measure the internal diameter of the tube. The best way to find the volume of the test tube is to transfer the liquid to a clean graduated cylinder to take a reading. Note there will be some error in this measurement, too. A small volume of liquid may be left behind in the test tube during transfer to the graduated cylinder. Almost certainly, some of the sample will remain in the graduated cylinder when you transfer it back to the test tube. Take this into account. Combining Formulas to Get Volume Yet another method to get the volume of a rounded test tube is to combine the volume of a cylinder with half the volume of the sphere (the hemisphere that is the rounded bottom). Be aware that the thickness of the glass at the bottom of the tube may be different from that of the walls, so there is an inherent error in this calculation.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Project management approaches for dynamic environments Essays Project management approaches for dynamic environments Paper Project management approaches for dynamic environments Paper These projects are challenged by the rapid introduction of new unknowns as they progress. One might say they are more akin to stacking worms than stacking bricks. The difficulties posed by these projects are identified and the literature is reviewed for suitable approaches. ? 2008 Elsevier Ltd and MAMA. All rights reserved. Key. Fords: Project management; Dynamic 1. Introduction This paper sets out to investigate the nature of projects conducted in fast changing environments. Examples and theory are used to illustrate the nature and challenges of this category. Suitable management approaches are identified under the allowing headings: Planning, Experimentation, Lifestyle, Controls, Culture, Communication, and Leadership style. 2. The dynamic project category The paper closes with recommendations for further research. In this paper, control is taken to mean the mechanisms through which resources are managed to achieve objectives and is different to the MAMBO technique  which is strictly focused on bringing activities in line with a plan . The term dynamic is taken to mean characterized by constant change . In the project management context dynamism is taken to be a dimension of a project hat represents the extent to which a project is influenced by changes in the environment in which it is conducted. Corresponding author. Address: ITS Project Office, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, SLD 4072, Australia. Tell. : +61 7 33654935; fax: +61 401 E-mail add Reese: [emailprotected] Com (S. Collier). 0263-7863/$36. 00 2008 Elsevier Ltd and MAMA All rights reserved. DOI:1 0. 1 016/j. Sparkman. 2008. 04. 04 This paper argues that this is a non-binary dimension that applies in varying degrees to all projects, so strictly any given project is neither dynamic nor not dynamic. All projects have some agree of dynamism, so the dimension is not dichotomy. Therefore, the ideas in this paper may be applied in varying degrees to any project as deemed appropriate. For the sake of simplicity though, for the remainder of this paper, a dynamic project is taken to be one that is necessarily subject to hi gher than normal levels of change due to the environment in which it is conducted. The business environment is changing at an increasing pace [5-7]. Retell and Ziegfeld  went so far as to say we are in the midst of a technology explosion. They argued that 90% of our technical knowledge has been generated in he last 55 years, and that technical knowledge will continue to increase exponentially. Perrine and Tipping  reported the pace of technology is accelerating raising the stakes and risks for managing innovation, and requiring early warning and shorter response time. Change, in all forms of technology and business processes, can be regarded as increasingly pervasive and providing challenges even where high technology is not a core business, such as in mining . Consider how the Australian Submarine project was challenged by developments in the IT industry between the sass design phase, and sea trials decades later . This paper will now investigate dynamic projects from a theoretical point of view. Gray and Larson [1 1] argued that 356 S. Collier, C. M. J. Warren / International Journal of Project Management 27 (2009) 355-364 projects conducted in highly uncertain environments are a key unresolved project management issue and present the following challenges: planning for uncertain outcomes; balancing flexibility with reliability and accountability; balancing decision quality against decision speed; timing scope freeze during rapid change. Pick, Loch and De Meyer  describe a type of project hat encounters unknown unknowns and how it is best suited to what they called a learning strategy which involves scanning, problem solving and flexibility. They argue that this is distinct from projects conducted in well understood environments which are suited to instructions, and distinct from selections where the most fruitful initiative is chosen after a pool of trials. Turner and Cochran [131 espouse the goals and methods matrix that describes four different types of project according to how well defined the methods and goals are. Projects can have poorly defined oils (fire) or poorly defined methods (Water), or both (aid). Sheehan and Weidman  describe a type of project that involves high levels of uncertainty, using technologies together for the first time. They call these high tech . They also describe a type of project that actually creates new technologies, called super high tech. Sheehan [1 5] describes how low technology projects are typically performed in construction, production and utilities, and high technology projects in the computer, aerospace and electronics industries. He offers building and bridge construction as examples f low technology projects. The key difference to Sheehan is the level of development work involved, in that low technology projects have little, and high technology projects have considerable levels and usually require prototyping. Sheehan and Weidman  argue that another key difference is the number of design cycles. In low technology projects they say there is typically only one cycle with a freeze before development, and with high technology there are at least two, typically three cycles. Operational work Coif [1 6] suggests that projects be placed on a spectrum of newness from operational to project. The idea has been adapted in Fig. 1 to illustrate the sliding scale of unknowns that applies to projects. Unknowns in this sense refer to any aspect of the project, including the methods to achieve it, the objective, and the environment it has to operate in. The guide to the project management body of knowledge (MAMBO)  describes progressive elaboration, where planning is developed in greater detail as the project progresses. Using progressive elaboration to fill knowledge gaps, it might be possible to move a project to the left in Fig. 1, thereby achieving the objective in a more predictable fashion. However, paid changes in the environment, including tools and methods, and attempts to innovate, act to push the project to the right, increasing unknowns. The two forces Of exploration and change act against each other continuously throughout the project. The challenge is to conduct exploration at a greater rate than the emergence of environmental change. It is also important to ensure that the amount of change created by the exploration and implementation is not counterproductive overall. An example of Project A in Fig. 1 might be a production line where there only variable is the color required. Project B might e a house construction where there are more unknowns at the start but most are resolved in the early stages. Project C might be a software development project for a new business. The clients business processes, and the technologies used in the project, change during the course of execution, thereby affecting the methods used and goals. Projects conducted in environments with higher levels of dynamism may be more likely to pose some of the attributes of Shiners [1 5] high technology or super high technology categories with uncertainty at the start, but also include even more challenging high levels of change along the way. In dynamic project environments, significant proportions of the methods and goals are changed by external forces out of the projects control. The effort to resolve unknowns at the start of the project is severely challenged by the introduction of additional unknowns along the way, because what is learned can become obsolete in less time Dynamic project Classic project Knows unknowns Progressive Elaboration/Exploration Environmental Changes Innovation Fig. 1. The race to resolve project unknowns. (2009) 355-364 Table 1 The dynamic project category Work type Description Established controls. Operational processes. Lower levels of unknowns Requires the creation of new controls, usually a project plan, for a significantly new body of work, usually only carried out once. May have high levels of unknowns at the start but most resolved early, and few new unknowns arise during execution Requires the creation of new controls that are changed regularly during execution. Has high levels of unk nowns at the start and a high rate of new unknowns throughout. Must resolve the unknowns at a faster rate than they appear, and in time for completion Classic project Dynamic than it takes to learn. Materials, methods and goals are always moving, making projects more akin to stacking arms than stacking bricks. Table 1 attempts to describe the difference between operational work, classic project work, and projects with a strong dynamic dimension. The rate of resolving unknowns is especially critical on these projects. As soon as one engages in adjustment of scope to suit an uncontrollable environment one runs the risk of resolution lag. The rate at which unknowns are resolved must not only be sufficient to deal with those that existed at the start, but also those that appear during execution. For instance, assuming linear production and resolution of unknowns, the resolution rate must at least be equal to the appearance rate, plus enough to resolve unknowns that existed at the start (I. E. Number at start divided by the duration). The appearance rate will be quite high in a highly dynamic environment. Furthermore, unknowns may appear in inconvenient bursts, and certainly after planning is complete. Therefore, the rate of unknown resolution is a particular hazard for projects conducted in dynamic environments. 3. Illustration Two examples are provided to help illustrate the challenges of projects conducted in dynamic environments. Two subunits Of a single parent organization were selected on the basis that they had contrasting levels of dynamism. Both sub units had a mix of project types, but each appeared to have a higher proportion of one type. One sub unit had a higher proportion of projects utilizing the instructions approach and the other more utilizing the learning approach. In this paper one will be referred to as the static environment and the other as the dynamic environment, as a means to represent the relative levels of dynamism in each. Following is a description of challenges encountered by the higher levels of change in the dynamic environment. Product lifespan: the average mean time to failure (MITT) was three to four years compared to several cascades in the static environment. This meant that in a 357 given year one third of the products had to be replaced. There was very little that could be called operational. At any given point more than half of the environment was either being replaced or being planned for replacement. This also presented the sign efficient risk that materials would expire before the fall product was fully operational. Rate of introduction of new materials: most materials had only become available in the last three or four years, and were completely unknown less than a decade previously. By contrast most materials used in the static environment had been well understood for several decades, centuries, or even millennium, and the implementation methods were well understood and tuned. Difficulty finding and managing skilled labor: change led to a perpetually low level of knowledge about the properties of new materials, and how they should be implemented (methods), and therefore difficulty finding qualified resources. A sign efficient amount of study and certification was required to stay qualified in using an endless stream of new materials. It was regarded as almost impossible to Stay qualified and perform effectively as a manager at the same time. Staff promoted to management had to quickly decide teens giving up their qualifications or giving up good management. If they chose to be an effective manager, they had to do so without completely understanding the work their staff performed. This made it more difficult to manage, understand issues, and gauge performance. Level of integration with customer industry: while some organizations can execute relatively vanilla products for a range of contrasting clients, projects in the dynamic environment required significant customization and understanding of the client business. Changing goals: because customers were also operating in an environment of uncertainty and change, their acquirement also had a tendency to change rapidly. Affect on planning: in the dynamic environment new events that compromised plans arose rapidly throughout project delivery. The quantity of change made detailed plans difficult to maintain. In the time it took to adjust the plan, additional changes would occur. Analysis and decision making had to be conducted more rapidly than the emergence of new changes. Plans with excessive detail were found to be misleading and abandoned in favor Of a higher level or rolling wave approach. Even in the static environment, there could be too many unknowns at the start to be solved by the deadline, so the rapid introduction of new unknowns in the dynamic environment was doubly challenging. Morale: in the dynamic environment, well before a product or service was produced, thoughts had turned to the next generation, making the current goal seem less valuable or important. This made it difficult to maintain quality focus, or celebrate end points for reward and recognition. This in turn affected job satisfaction, 358 S. Collier, C. MS. Warren / International Journal of Project Management 27 morale and motivation. Lower product quality meant that deployed products required regular changes to continue their usefulness, and reliability. By comparison the visible achievement of a building lasts decades after it is complete. Levels of interdependence: projects were often intertwined with other projects and an existing dynamic environment. A change in one project had significant impact on other projects. The highly integrated nature of the environment, combined with high rates of change, made forward planning very challenging. Dependency on business units with much lower levels of dynamism who therefore may not respond as quickly, or understand the challenges being faced. Reduced business compatibility when an organization alls too far behind best practice, and find it difficult to recruit staff familiar with their environment. Sometimes technology used on a previous project simply does not exist any more, and new ones have to be used; low material life-spans (low MATT) and life-cycles (period before manufacture ceases permanently). This means that most materials, and therefore products, have to be replaced within three to four years, with a next generation material/product. Next generation materials/products usually have differing properties to the original, and this has a flow on affect to dependent products. While standards may be used extensively, omen variations in properties are deemed necessary to achieve improvements. . Project management approaches for dynamic environ meets An industry with a strong public safety requirement may be attracted to the make static approach. This requirement can help justify funds to test and implement strategies, and this can mitigate the reliability disadvantages of early adoption; consider the medical and the aircraft construction industries as examples. Conversely t he IT industry cannot easily leverage public safety to justify costs, so it trades reliability for faster delivery, of new functionality, at lower costs. Jones argues that technology product lifestyles are now measured in months, compared to the car industry in years (about five), and in construction change in product technology is very limited and products such as steel girders and electrical cable may remain in the mature stage indefinitely Although the make static approach has merits, it also has limitations, and so other approaches are a necessary part of the mix. The intention here is to review literature to provide a broad overview of approaches that might be used to better deal with dynamic environments. Approaches were broken down as follows: Environment manipulation making dynamic static. Planning approaches for dynamic environments. Scope control for dynamic environments. Controlled experimentation. Lifestyle strategies. Management controls: input, behavior and output, diagnostic, belief, interactive and boundary. Culture and communication for dynamic environments. Categorization. Leaders IP style. 4. 1 . Environment manipulation make dynamic static The most obvious approach to deal with the challenges of a dynamic environment is to attempt to make it more static by resisting change. This could be achieved by: freezing objective and design. Rejecting change requests; reducing or delaying adoption of new (esp.. Unproven) technologies or techniques; extending the life of existing systems. In highly dynamic environments the benefits of the make static approach are countered by challenges such as: lost opportunity and productivity though delayed implementation of new approaches, materials or business objectives, that provide significant benefits, despite the challenges; reduced business competitiveness, especially when competing organizations offer, or make use of, new systems which are often more effective; 4. 2. Planning approaches for dynamic environments Project management, as defined by the bodies of knowledge, is focused mostly on a management-as-planning view of control and appears to be an appropriate approach for projects with clear goals and methods . However, Slake and Howell  argue that for speedy projects, traditional project management is simply counterproductive; it creates self-inflicted problems that seriously undermine performance. The problem is that events arise at faster rates than is practical to re-plan Attempting detailed long term planning for these projects can waste time and resources, and lead to false expectations.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Performance Management in Education - Essay Example Average spending per pupil is approaching that of independent schools. Rather than the lack of resources, the reason for poor performance lies in the structure of the education system. In the absence of parental choice, British schools have been subjected to increasingly strong direction from central government. While the aim was to achieve a minimum level of achievement for all children, the result has been persistently low standards, inequity and burdensome regulation Research (Oct,2005) done by the independent think tank Reform shows that radical education reform, based on allowing parents to choose either state or independent schools at the taxpayers' expense, is supported by a half of all voters and would create thousands of new schools. A Reform study, The potential benefits of real education reform in England, includes detailed research into the system of school choice in Sweden, held up last week by the former Minister Alan Milburn as a model for the forthcoming White Paper on secondary education. Sweden has seen a dramatic increase in the number of taxpayer-funded independent schools in all areas of the country, including rural and deprived areas. If the Swedish experience was replicated in England, real reform would lead to over 3,500 new schools in twelve years. Reform also released an ICM poll on education reform. ... If the Swedish experience was replicated in England, real reform would lead to over 3,500 new schools in twelve years. Reform also released an ICM poll on education reform. It shows that 76 per cent of voters think that state education is in need of a fundamental review and 49 per cent support choice of both state and independent schools on the Swedish model. A majority of 18-34 year-olds support radical reform. The study shows that the Government's general election manifesto gives it the mandate it needs to introduce radical reform. But unless the key principle of reform is accepted - that taxpayers' money can follow parental choice freely into the independent sector, allowing new schools to open according to parental demand rather than Local Education Authority decision - any change will be slow and any improvement limited. The Reform report shows: 1. The Prime Minister and other senior Labour figures have said that a key objective for this Parliament is to increase the number and variety of state schools in England. They have argued for barriers to the opening of schools to be removed and for new schools to be run by private and voluntary providers. 2. This objective is right. At present the provision of schools and school places is not demand-led by parents but centrally planned by Local Education Authorities. The effect of planning decisions over the last two decades has been to reduce the number of schools and to limit the choices available for parents. Since 1984, the total number of state schools has fallen by 13 per cent (a fall of 3,267 schools) in a time of rising pupil numbers. Prime Minister and other senior Labour figures have made clear that a key aim of their policy for Parliament is to increase the number and variety of state schools
Friday, November 1, 2019
How telecommunication has shaped the work place - Assignment Example Other pertinent information contained in the white paper could be cited as an authoritative source backed by statistical information and encompasses different organizations on a global sphere. The annual report published by Deloitte presented crucial information regarding three significant drivers of change in the global setting: technology, media and telecommunications. From among the noted predictions under telecommunications include: (1) the preponderance of $100 smartphones; (2) technological devise with near field communications (NFC) capabilities would double in growth; (3) web bypass would predominate emphasizing visual connectivity without the need for Internet access; among others. The information contained herein is relevant in the current research in terms of clearly identifying future trends which have significant impacts in the work setting through its impact on current telecommunications resources used by contemporary global organizations; as well as the need to adapt, adjust, and upgrade, as identified. The authors aimed to determine the impact of smartphones in the health care work settings by initially providing an overview of the development of smartphones. Likewise, the authors expounded on assessing how smartphones were instrumental in transforming the work setting in health institutions through the various applications that were initially offered and which caters to the health care environment. The apparent distraction from tasks were closely examined through a SWOT analysis. The findings revealed some detailed guidelines and best practices to monitor and control the use of smartphones and ensure their beneficial applications within the health care setting. This article is useful in the current study particularly in identifying how a telecommunications application, through the smartphone, has significantly affected and shaped the