Thursday, February 28, 2019
In class Ms. Crosdale sat us mickle to watch a documentary by the bang-up Michael Moore Capitalism A Love Story. To be quite honestly at first I wasnt very interested in it until I started to hear minuscule things worry sight losing their jobs and companies taking go forth life indemnity on their employees unknowingly. I took it upon myself to go home and catch the rest of it on Netflix. aft(prenominal) two hours of pull ining the evil of capitalism or, as Michael Moore puts it, legal greed, I see myself looking at the world and our government in a different light.I have volunteered plenty of times before in shelters and have heard stories of capitalism taking toll over peoples life and leaving left with absolutely nothing. I in addition view everyday the mad rush of those who have been captured up in the rat competition for more here in the investment of the capitalistic world. One man said in the word picture that Wall highroad is a holy place, and also implied that cap italism, each person making as much cash as he can, is God-given. Other comments in the impression regarded to capitalism as evil. Who is right?One interesting point that came to attend while watching the documentary was was it was said following Ronald Reagan years where the policies of tire come forth Regan turned the bull loose for free enterprises, corporations gained more political power, unions were weakened, and socioeconomic gaps were widened. Then after it cuts in to speak ab come out of the closet coverage of stone-dead peasant insurance policies, where companies such as Wal-Mart have insurance against losings caused when workers or suppliers die. The employee is usually unaware of the policy, and the fact that the company stands to benefit if s/he dies. Apparently the practice of taking out life insurance on valuable, high level employees started a number of years ago.This seemed to pose some sense, since a company stood to lose money from the untimely deaths of pr ofound personnel. But somehow, in recent years, facilitated by deregulation, this practice morphed into taking out policies on low- paid, easily replaced workers, i.e., peasants. Why? Windfall profits. It turns out that companies like confide of America, WalMart, AT&T, Procter & Gamble, Dow Chemical, and others have found a way to make godsend profits off the deaths of employees These dead peasant policies are also know to insiders as E. COLI Employee Company Owned Life Insurance. Funny? More like outrageous Sometimes the company even gets the huge pay out when a former employee dies, because leaving the company doesnt void the policy.The movie shows a parody of what would occur if God was a capitalist who desired to maximize earnings, deregulate the financial market, and desired the sick to pay out of pocket for their pre-existing condition , in comparison with several knowledge commentators who announce the achievements of various capitalist businesses as being a commendation from God. The dictionary defines capitalism as an economic system characterized by personal or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are impelled by private decision, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined primarily by competition in a free market. While the give-and-take doesnt mention capitalism by name, it does speak a great deal about economic issues.In my opinion, every thinking U.S. citizen should see this movie and take time out to think about the area that we are living in. Why? Very simply, because it will prick your conscience. On one level, its classic Moore, with indirect and subliminal humor, mockery (especially toward big-chested people), understated exaggeration, and the clever use of peoples own oral communication to incriminate themselves. But in over all, every point Moore makes is painfully true, and in this film more than in his previous ones, you feel the subject matter of a man who has compassion for the demoralized.
T.S. Eliots The waste product is know for its kaleidoscopic and break up ricochet, with the converging of different styles from different movements of poetry the employment of a wide seethe of metaphorical devices (from allusions to the decidedly Christian quest for the Holy Grail, to references about past Greece, and more pagan origins the diversity of allusions from different cultures only serves to raise the universality of the songs report) and the wealth of convolutions of the rime as a whole, start from hotshot scene to a nonher in an abrupt and disc at one timerting need of traditional cohesion.There are rapid shifts not only in imagery and perspective, but too in setting, and in subject. And yet the song is unified by its overall theme of despair despair and futility in the midst and at the inevitable end of mans anticipate for peace and contentment. Man subjects himself to a baffled search for spiritual peace, when, in the end, he essential be resigned th at the search is, after all that time, futile, level never-ending. It is this futility and despair that grounds the fragments of the poem, the so-called bigger picture, make it into that which the poem strives to attain.A technique that Eliot employs is the deliberate scattering of connected passages that discuss one subject. As an exploration of the theme, he carries it further by dissecting the subject, offering hints and foreshadowing in earlier lift offs of the poem, then places the other divisions into a variation of sections.Malcolm Bradbury and mob McFarlane, in their previous essay Name and Nature of Modernism for Modernism, 1890-1930, encapsulates the fragmented miscellanea of the poem Modernist bats frequently tend to be ordered, then, not on the sequence of historical time or the evolving sequence of character, from account or story, as in realism and naturalism they tend to work spatially with layers of consciousness, working towards a logic of metaphor or form ( p.50).The Modernist poems multiplicity in layers exploits the poetic form in that insights and epiphanies are not procured at face value, that the reader must take it upon himself to discover and explore the layers and exposition. Also, the collage- care quality of this Modernist poem tore done the traditional forms of poetry and poetics, in its audacious experimentation.Jerome Rothenberg and Pierre Joris in their introductory essay for Poems for the Millennium say, A characteristic of modern art (and poetry) so defined . . . has been the questioning of art itself as a discrete and jump category (p.8). The poet and the poem continue to push at the boundaries, insisting that the boundaries should not even be existent an intention that The Wasteland succeeds in carrying out.Although the legion(predicate) convolutions and intricacies in The Wasteland evoke the initial impression of fragmentation, there are interlocking themes and content, if not passages reminiscent of others, foun d throughout the poem. Part of Eliots poetics is, on a lower floorneath all the references from other fragments of literature and all levels of allusions, there are images that shall mirror another, and then another, though they may be as baffling as a single word in a line, through they may be scattered throughout the entire length of the poem. atomic number 53 example of this resonance can be found in Eliots mention of drowning, or expiration by water. The narrative is prophesied near the start-off of the poem, lines 46 and 47 say, Here, said she, / Is your card, the drowned Phoenician crew member, followed with the ominous statement, Fear death by water in line 55, found in the identical section. It is essential to note that among the ancient Mediterranean people, it was the Phoenicians who became known for expertness in sailing and navigation, mastering the rather challenging task of sailing against the wind, making headway little by little, by tacking back and forth (Bla ck).Eliot provides this information through a prophesy by one of the umpteen characters in the poem, Madame Sosostris, a clairvoyant. This adds another dimension to the resonance of the passage because, as well as being part of a group of references, its very position as being the first the readers encounter in the poem provides and carries out its intention of foretelling the future.Eliot then continues to explore this theme, in more or less teasing narrative, throughout the poem. The next reference is found in part three, or The Fire Sermon. In line 220 221, the sailor is mentioned again in, At the violet hour, the evening hour that strives / Homeward, and brings the sailor home from sea. Interestingly, this is imparted in the form of another prophecy of sorts this time from the blind seer Tiresias.This passage offers a kind of build-up by narrating the usual routine of a sailor in one of his less sad days at work. The statement is an aside, a mere commentary at the larger p icture painted by The Fire Sermon, although in its simplicity and subtlety, the passage succeeds in presenting that the Phoenician sailor is supposed to come home from a hard day (and wickednesss) work at the sea.Which makes it all the more tragic, as these resonant images culminate, appropriately enough, in part four, titled Death by Water. Everything comes together in this part of the poem. The skilled yet unfortunate Phoenician sailor is named, Phlebas, and we regard his fate, that which has long been hinted at from different parts of the poem. Phlebas dies, . . . a current under sea / Picked his bones in whispers (line 315). And he dies, not for want of expertise in his profession, but by forgetting . . . the cry of gulls, and the deep sea bubble up / and the profit and loss (lines 313 to 314) readers get the impression that Phlebas was preoccupied, in reflection of matters known only to him.In him readers behold another character of Eliots, who emulates a theme of the poem, that human beings are in a continuous search for some(prenominal) sort of peace or contentment, yet they must resign ourselves to a life of futility and despair. Death by Water concludes with a note, some talking to of caution, still reminding the reader of the Phoenician sailors skill, his promise, regardless of his tragic death O you who turn the wheel and look to windward, / Consider Phlebas, who was once handsome and tall as you.Aside from being a limited review of traditional form and the very definition of art and poetry, the poem also became a critique of the current social condition. Published in the viewing of World War I, which had been the most destructive war in biography at that point, many believed that the poem was an indictment of post-war European culture and as an expression of disillusionment in contemporary society, which Eliot believed to be culturally barren. despair was the consensual mood of nations, and salvation seemed bleak at the time. The Wasteland encapsulated that consensus, that attitude, displaying one of the characteristic of Modernism, which is the one art that responds to the scenario of our chaos (Bradbury and McFarlane, 27). And the stylized fragmentation of the poem serves to thrust that aim further, form functioning to serve the subject matter.The Wasteland as a Modernist poem employs daring experimentation of style, from sudden shifts in form and style and subject, to the division of narrative style and exposition. Passages reminiscent of each other are found throughout the poem, carrying with it the theme of the poem like an interconnection of veins throughout a human body. It is a critique of the time, and of the times before that had shaped the current situation. As Rothenberg and Joris state, The most interesting work of poetry and art are those that question their own shapes and forms, and by implication the shapes and forms of whatever preceded them (p. 11).Works CitedBlack, Bob. Borne by the Wind The Lur e and Lore of Sailing. Microsoft Encarta 2006. CD-ROM. Redmond, WA Microsoft Corporation, 2005.Bradbury, Malcolm and James McFarlane. Modernism, 1890-1930. Sussex Harvester Press, 1879.Harmon, William. T.S. Eliot. Microsoft Encarta 2006. CD-ROM. Redmond, WA Microsoft Corporation, 2005.Ramazani, Jahan, Richard Ellmann and Robert OClair, eds. The Norton Anthology of Modern and Contemporary Poetry. impertinent York W. W. Norton, 2003.Rothenberg, Jerome and Pierre Joris, eds. Poems for the Millenium the University of California Book of Modern and Postmodern Poetry. Berkeley University of California Press, 1998.
Have you ever lapseed to place and asked yourself Boy I spend those days We every(prenominal) return to a place that h peerlesstime(a)s many some other(prenominal) memoires, exhaustively or bad. For every person, some places hold great importance in their lives. A particular(prenominal) place that is really important to me is my home country, Somalia. Somalia, approximately notably, Kismayo, is my fork outplace and a place that I hold dearly in my heart. So many childhood memories of me and my family occurred in kismayo. All of my brothers, including myself, were all born(p) in Kismayo. My mother and father met and married in the same vicinity we live in.Family is of major significance to me, and living near many uncles, aunts, and cousins was a great experience. Returning to my birthplace was unendingly a dream of mine. As a child, returning to my birthplace was all I thought about. I left Kismayo at the tender age of 10. A civil state of war broke out in Somalia in 1991, three years out front my birth. The war destroyed and demoralized many families in Somalia. My family was fortunate becoming to escape unscathed during this horrible and gruesome civil war. My mom and dad, along with my brothers, relocated to Kenya in exile, hoping one day to return to the place we knew beforehand the civil war.My family returned mid-1994, and find animateness in kismayo very challenging. My mother gave birth to me during this year. I record the stories my mother use to tell me about our return to Somalia and the troubles and hardships we faced upon our return. Reminiscing about my childhood, I remember the neighborhood we lived in and the mundane activities I took part in. We lived in a small two path house, which at the time was large enough for are family. We lived near many of our relatives and we visited each other every day. Family is a big part of the Somali culture, and living near one another ensured a close bring together with one another.Re ligion is perhaps the biggest value in Somali culture. I remember running up the dusty hills along with my father and brothers to work out prayer at the local mosque. We would take the same path to the mosque louvre times a day to perform the five mandatory prayers. other significant value I loved was language. Every Somali overlap the same language, but t here(predicate) are some minor regional differences. I remember enjoying the comfort of my friends and cousins afterwards school we would often jocosity with one another. We walked up hills and dirt roads for 40 minutes to school, which was an old brick house.We were taught English and math, and most of the time was devoted to religious studies. Food is another value in our culture, the common meal in our household was burgoo and rice. I remember ingest those two meals nearly every day, which at the time was a luxury because of the state of the country. During our leisure time, we would often institute soccer in a dirt fi eld, which was split than nothing. Even though we lived in poverty, our homeland was very important to us and it was all we ever knew. Everything changed once we moved to the join States during the summer of 2003. As an adult, I perplex lived in the United States for nearly 9 years.We came to Minnesota from the advice of our Uncle, who traveled here alone to settle down and eventually take us in. access to the United States was a big technological and cultural shock. The technology all around was advanced and we never seen such a sight. The buildings were humungous and exquisite, vehicles of all kinds roamed the streets equivalent a herd of animals, and so many different ethnicities and cultures integrated into one country. The luxury of electricity to light your house, clean running water from your sink, and eating foods other than rice and oatmeal was surreal.Eventually, my family and I settled in and after approximately 10 years I returned to my homeland. Returning was a sp ecial and troubling moment. The neighborhood we once lived in has not changed since the war. Most of Somalia is facilitate underdeveloped and many live in extreme poverty. We once lived in these conditions and my mother always reminds us of where we came from and the conditions we once lived in. Many of my family members relocated to the United States, but some stayed preserving the way of life the always knew. It was rewarding comprehend them after so many years I left a child and returned as a man.Almost nothing changed and I was roughly elated to see my homeland, and saddened by the lack of progress made to better the lives of the ones living in poverty. In the end, returning to my homeland taught me a life lesson. Even though it was some time ago, I fondly remember the conditions we lived in and it has made me more appreciative for what I have today. away from the difficult moments, Ive many extraordinary childhood memories from my childhood. Returning to my homeland fulfill ed a lifelong dream of mine. I will always look back at those memories with great pride and joy.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
Is in that location a specific and accurate definition of cognize? The true meaning of love is real difficult to find for adults. Do adolescents mature enough to suffice love? It is too complex to define love in one word. Even though adolescents atomic number 18 physically matured homogeneous adults, they soothe need to develop mentally because they argon still insecure. Teenagers are like thin glass cups their surfaceance and mind seem clean and transparent, unless they are delicate and can be broken easily.. I drive observed closely from SAT preparation academy called Honors Review eruditeness Center in Tenafly, sensitive Jersey.I was in 10th tally geometry class and pre-calculus class to survey, and I also tutor students for supernumerary help. With these I was fitting to gather that there were sevensome to eight students in a class room, further they were mostly Asiatics. in that respect was only one blank boy in that class, this was because of the low macr ocosm of this town Tenafly has large population of Korean. When I observed geometry class, I was not able to ask questions from all(prenominal) and every one of them, alone I noticed that boys pitch to stead with boys while girls potty close to one another.They are all from corresponding high school, so during the break time, they will gather and hang divulge together in a classroom. However, in Pre-calculus class, students are from different school, so they seat together with go forth forming any crowds or clique. They tend to do things singly even during the break time, like talking on the cell phone, texting with friends, or doing their works. However, subsequently few days, students get to get laid one another and they started to seat by genders again. Having noted all this, I decided to focus my utterance on gender of adolescents.After two hours of class, I tutored Jason Moon for extra help. I explained the materials that he did not understand in class. Although, I attend this academy during my high school year, it was only for private tutoring. However, the tradition of pictorial focus on secondary school education continues to be loyal and seems to endure much than, than my high school years. Jason is fifteen years old and he is a student of Tenafly High school. Jasons parent work together, indeed he has to remain in this academy until his mother is done with her job.However, after two hours of class, Jason seems to lose concentration when he studies with me, so we spend to a greater extent time talking to each other than studying. Jason is an Asiatic the Statesn student, hardly his parents are both(prenominal) Asian Asians. When I told him that I attended New York University, he was to a greater extent interested in parties and girls in the city, instead of the college feeling in the city. He has very outspoken personality and likes hanging out with friends. He told me he is in a relationship with two girls, although both relati onships are not a serious type.However, one of the girls wants him to be committed. Then, I asked if he had had any cozy relationship with any of them, but he said no. The girl was not born(p) in the fall in States she came from Korea several years ago. So, I tried to enlighten him that there are cultural differences in dating. I also told him that Asian women devote themselves to their boyfriends or husbands, and they very serious almost commitment issues. However, in America, dating tends to be much less formal. Adolescent boys and girls still go together to events, and they played out more time together informally.The second girl that Jason was dating was born in the United States. She tends to date less formerly than the other girl, so, she does not want to commit herself to Jason. American adolescents begin dating earlier today than before, and their dating behavior tends to follow a sequence. First, same gender looks for adorn where they can meet other groups of differe nt gender, mixed gender group arranged to go to the same events together, and adolescent couples begin to date as pairs. It has also been noted that biological maturity has slight effects on the timing of dating for different individual.Adolescents date for recreation, companionship, intimacy and courtship, but these reasons motley along with passels age. As emerging adulthood, muckle tend to seek something different apart from their romantic partners. However, dating is usually and mainly related to positive development of adolescents. Robert J. Sternberg, a cognitive psychologist, stated that trio fundamental qualities of love are passion, intimacy, and commitment. These can be merged into seven different forms of love, which are liking, infatuation, empty love, romantic love, companionate love, fatuous love, and consummate(a) love.Jasons relationship with the Asian American girl does not have long term commitment, which means that there are two hint types of love being pra ctice by Jason infatuation and empty love. However, the offshoot girl was looking for romantic love and companionate love. Feelings of passion appear to be virtually universal characteristic of adolescents love, and romantic love is more based on marriage, which is the characteristics of adults, but it is also related to cultural differences of dating behaviors.Jason told me that he feels more comfortable dating the Asian American girl than the other girl. People of all ages tend to have romantic relationships with people who are similar to them. I inquired from Jason if he feels comfortable talking about their versed relationship, and he told me, he has not have any inner relationships with of them yet, but he told me that he has practice other sexual behaviors, but not the sexual intercourse. Kissing and necking are the first sexual experiences most adolescents have with their sexual partner. The next sequential step would be petting.Therefore, dating and having sexual relation ships would vary based on cultural differences. First, sexual intercourse has shown distinct ethnic differences. Recently, it has been noted that African American adolescents are more likely to move quickly to intercourse while Asian Americans are less likely to engage in sexual application in their adolescences. It would be more accurate and effective if I was able to ask these kinds of questions from girls, but teenrs seem more comfortable discussing these kinds of information to somebody of their gender and age group.I was born in Korea and lived in Korea for more than 15 years this makes me more conservative about dating and sexual behavior than American students. In South Korea, boys and girls tend to separate themselves more than teenagers in the United States. Basic concepts of having relationship vary from culture to culture. geological dating is even less formal in European societies, and also in non-western societies dating is fairly rare. In the United States, hugging and kissing is very common for recognise, but in Korea, the friendliest way of greeting other people is shaking hands.I was extremely surprised when I first came to America I saw how they were very open-minded in terms of greeting others. Woman sitting on mans lap in public is easily seen in America, but in Korea or any other Asian countries this is extremely rare. Moreover, the meaning of dating and having relationship varies in different cultures, but due to the development of technology, such as mesh and media, the spread of American and European cultures of dating is fast spreading to Asia. Asian people today have become more aggressive and open-minded.There are three types of cultural approaches to adolescent sexuality these are restrictive, getup restrictive, and permissive. American majority culture is probably beat out classified as semi restrictive. However this is shaded with ambivalence. For instance, the spread of internet had caused teenagers to adapt pornography ea rlier than before. Spreading of internet and media helps people to live better and comfortable lives, but it can also cause other teenage problems, such as teenage motherliness and date rape.Sexual torture includes mild harassment like name-calling, jokes, while severe harassment involves unwanted touching or sexual contact. Rates of sexual harassment in adolescence are strikingly high and it is often the continuation of patterns of bullying established before adolescence. In addition, females are more likely to be the victims while males are the harassers. see to it rape takes place when a person is forced by a romantic partner, date, or has sexual intercourse against the partners will.Although there are no such occurrences of these inappropriate sexual conceptions in my observational place, however, it is more common in urban areas. Dating and relationship is perpetually or more rapidly changing over time, not only from cultural differences, but also from advancement in techn ology. However, it is almost out(predicate) to stop those two components. Based on my observation and my personal experience, the best way to lead the teenagers in right and appropriate manners is defend them active, make them do lots of healthy and productive activities.Also, by curtain raising up this kind of conversation in the public, it will reduce teenage pregnancy and date rape. Forcing them and keeping them in-door might help at the sign stage, but it will cause even more terrible situations. If we know that our children will eventually date and have sexual relationship with someone, it would be better to teach them how to have a responsible relationship and preventative sex before hand. This will reduce the teenage and unwanted pregnancy in our society. Therefore, we should come up with how to create more interesting and socialize sex education to enlighten our teenagers in public.
Kevin Gerbier What is a fable? When one thinks of a storey by chance one thinks about a story world told by the fire, or a dramatic report about an invincible wedge, or perhaps a cosmogenic occurrent that ca using upd everything to be. Person eithery, when I think of the word fable, I think of the ancient Greeks or Romans with their many gods and goddesses however, to most, the story being told by a myth is scarce that, just a story.To most the marches myth has been confused for a legend or folklore. The truth of the affaire is however, that to religious scholars, a myth is more than just a story a myth is how a hunting lodges religion came to explain what seemed the inexplicable. With modern experience halcyon and being capable of explaining the events that our ancestors could non, there has been a mix up on the term myth and on the plump that it plays in the religious backbone.As a scientist, when I hear the word myth or that approximatelything is just now a m yth, I understand that as being false or on the whole untrue or, when people in south America atomic number 18 told the direful story of the chupa cabra that is simply disregarded as a myth, a folklore invented by someone who may have seen an animal they did non know and simply disguised it as a monster. The reality of the matter however, is that, scholarly, a myth is as true as anything else nominate be. This does not necessarily hateful that when one hears the story of the great flood it literally means that god flooded the entire world.A myth can be based on historical facts or none at all the facts are not what make a myth true but it is the story that elysian it and the content of it. A myth is simply a figurative poesy telling a story that explains the human encounter with the unkn own. This is where the religious construction ties in with the scholarly view of myths. Every religion has its own story or myth on how the universe was created, how humans came to be, whe re support came from, and so on. These stories show a kind of relationship with the supernatural and the psyche beings.Myths began as stories that were told by word of mouth eventually however, they began to be written and in a religions sacred writings. From these written pull down myths, the teachers or the wise from each religion can interpret the metaphorical story that has been passed down from older generations of that religion and enlighten those who follow it. The splendour of myths is how it functions and plays a role in a particular religion and society. Joseph Campbell was a mythologist and a writer. He believed that myth was in fact non-fiction and that it played a great role in how it functioned with religion and beliefs.He wrote The Heros pilgrimage where he outlined four major components that gave a function to myths. These were that, initiative myths produce a mystical function, myths similarly have a cosmological function, myths posses a sociological functio n, and netly myths have a psychological function according to joseph Campbell. The mystical function of myth is meant to keep the worshipper in awe and be able to experience first hand the force out of the divine through the story. The stories are meant to engage the listener or reader so that they can relate to an extent beyond their comprehension.This function places the believer in a humble state when the realization of how miniscule they are compared to their god. The mystical function unites the believer with the transcendent reality to which they originated from. This function is meant to nurture a sense of cartel to that which cannot be directly seen but is matt-up when engaged in the story. The cosmological function of myth is one that can be seen less in our advanced society due to all the scientific research that has discredited many of the sacred texts stories on humankind and many other subjects the divine.For example, the Christian myth about the Garden of Eden, Adam, Eve, and the interdict tree could once have been seen as factually true. With modern science as an ally, we are no longer confined to that story as an explanation to our beginnings. The cosmological function however is meant to do just that, itemize a divine story that explains that which inexplicable at the time the story was created. The third function of myths is the sociological function this function of myths can be trivial and sometimes twisted and turned for a select conferences own benefit.Not only do the metaphorical stories told in myth explain how the world functions or came to be per say, but also they cave in teachings of social order and divine order. An example of this can be seen in the Bible where homosexuality is said to be an abomination. This type of lesson leads the believers in range away from that sort of behavior because their god frowns upon it. The sociological function is also meant to build a better society by instilling a sense of morals, et hics, and customs upon the people.The problem with this type of function arises when zealots begin to use the rules and orders set in their sacred texts to their selfish needs and neglect the rest. The final function of myths is that they possess a psychological function and this may perhaps be the most important one of the set. This functions links the believer with him/herself and helps them with infixed struggles they may have at some point by being able to relate to a hero in the mythological story.Such hero can be seen in the story of Lot found in the bible Lot faced many hardships and struggles because god was testing his faith through them. Once his struggles were through and god saw that Lot did not lose faith in him, Lot was rewarded in multiple amounts to more than what he had before his hardships. This kind of story tells the believer that no matter what they might be going through they are being tried for a greater purpose. This is the type of self lesson that the psyc hological function of myths posses.The term myth is a term that is thrown around very in the main in our society to describe something that may be untrue or with a fictitious background. As discussed, the term is much more than that and has some truth to it. Stories in myths were told as metaphors and had truthful insights and lessons behind them. Myths serve a mystical, cosmological, social, and psychological function that allows believers to relate to the stories in a much antithetical level. A divine level perhaps. Myths connect the believer to their divine entity, to the society they are living in, and to themselves.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
Chp. 15 Chemical rest Occurs when a reaction and its reverse reaction (opposing reactions) cash in ones chips at the same rate At symmetricalness the rate at which products are produced from reactants equals the rate at which reactants are produced from products At equilibrium a particular ratio of concentration terms equals a constant The written report of an equilibrium mixture does not change with time Kc equilibrium constant 15. 2 Law of mass action expresses the relationship in the midst of the concentrations of the reactants and products present at equilibrium 5. 3 * * LARGE VALUE OF Kc Equilibrium mixture contains more products than reactants = product lieu (right side) K 1 *SMALL VALUE OF Kc Equilibrium mixture contains less products than reactants = reactant side (left side) K 1 The equilibrium-constant expression for a reaction written in one direction is the reciprocal of the one for the reaction written in the reverse direction Multiplying all the stoichiometric c oefficients by a matter gives the equilibrium constant for the original reaction raised to that number 15. 4Concentrations of subtile SOLIDS and LIQUIDS DO NOT appear in equilibrium expression L S 15. 5 ICE TABLS 15. 6 15. 7 Le chateliers convention IF a system at equilibrium is disturbed by a change in temperature, pressure, or the concentration of one of the components, the system go away shift its equilibrium position so as to counteract the proceeding of the disturbance % of NH3 at equilibrium decreases with increasing temperature and attachs with increasing pressure * * energy-absorbing reaction increase in temperature shifts equilibrium to right reactant bsorbs heat change magnitude T results in an increase K * Exothermic reaction Temperature increase shifts equilibrium to left product gives off heat Increasing T results in decreasing K * * Increasing pressure ( decreasing volume) equilibrium shifts in the direction producing the smaller number of moles of gas will fo reshorten the pressure * * Decreasing pressure (increasing volume) equilibrium shifts in the direction producing the larger number of moles of gas produces more pressure
Statement of the problem1. Can Lato (Caulerpa lentillifera) be apply as fertilizer to plants? 2. Comp bed to usual fertilizers, ordain scratch help retrovert lato fertilizers a better result to growth of plants? 3. Can Lato seaweed and sugar complement with apiece other in fashioning a crop- mattering fertilizer?Null Hypothesis1. Lato flush toilet be used as a fertilizer to plants. 2. Sugar can help yield lato fertilizers a better result to growing of plants. 3. Lato and sugar complement with each other in making a crop-yielding fertilizer.Significance of the Study everywhere the years, land and sea farming has been a part of Philippine life. It is cored to the whimsy that our archipelago is surrounded both by a large body of pissing and land area. Amid the adamant need for our fields to gain healthy crops, we, Filipinos are indeed in need to pave ways for strategies of growing our crops which will later result to profitable harvest.In this connection, this research aims to aim the potentials of lato seaweed and sugar as fertilizers with cheap investment. This aim roots its significance to the need of Filipino farmers to use affordable, organic, and accessible fertilizers that will help them in yielding bustling and voluminous crops.Review of Related Literaturethose gardening for food can use copious amounts of seaweeds for mulch and fertilizer.(Traditional Irish fertilizer, see Man of Aran, and The Field), total seaweeds abundantly to compost (Ryan Drum, 2012) Seaweeds are 20-50% dry weight mineral the elements abundant in seaweeds include potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, chloride, sulfur, phosphorous, vanadium, cobalt, manganese, selenium, bromine, iodine, arsenic, iron, and fluorine (Kazutosi, 2002). Fertilizers from seaweeds result to development crop yield probably due to the presence of growth promoting hormones (Bentley-Mowat, 1963). Other beneficial effect include increased resistance of crop to fungal and insect pe sts and increase water holding capacity of the soil (Mathiseson, 1967).Caulerpa lentillifera is high in minerals, vitamin A, C, and some(prenominal) essential unsaturated fatty acids. It is also reported to have antibacterial and antifungal properties (https//seaweedindustry.com/seaweed/type/caulerpa-lentillifera). Sugar added to fertilizer can influence the pH levels within the soil. Plants that are sensitive to a change in pH levels will be unable to absorb nutrients from the soil. (www.bioiberica.com) Sugar is a coarse way to get rid of weeds and keep your lawns eco-system balanced. ostensibly table sugar spread on your lawn is an organic gardening regularity to keep weeds at bay. (http//www.ehow.com/about_6404819_sugar-lawn-fertilizer.html)Scope and LimitationsThis research focuses and aims only to study the potentials of lato seaweed and sugar as fertilizers especially when combined together. The researcher gathered entropy from surfing the internet so as first-hand observ ation and experiments.
Monday, February 25, 2019
IN 1996, galvanising machine automobile autoS BEGAN TO APPEAR ON ROADS tot completelyy OVER CALIFORNIA. THEY WERE QUIET AND FAST, PRODUCED NO EXHAUST AND RAN WITHOUT GASOLINE. TEN YEARS LATER, THESE CARS WERE DESTROYED. teacherS GUIDE A QUIETLY SHOCKING INDICTMENT OF OUR GAS-GUZZLING simple machine COMPANIES AND THE PETRO-POLITICIANS WHO LOVE THEM. KAREN DURBIN, ELLE MAGAZINE SUNDANCE FILM FESTIVAL 2006 TRIBECA FILM FESTIVAL 2006 WHO KILLED THE ELECTRIC CAR? NOTE TO THE TEACHER Who Killed the galvanic cable car? is a muscular tool pertinent to many academic disciplines and adapt adequate to a regeneration of abilities, learning styles, and schoolroom goals.This rich, self-contained germinate requires little or no additional look for on the part of the instructor or the class, save t oilet be used as the foundation for independent educatee research. The film divides neatly into two near equal and independent segments that can be shown on successive days or at diver se points in a unit. Both segments offer excellent hash oution opportunities. The classroom experience of students taking courses on environmental science or offerings that complicate a unit on air quality or environmental concerns would be enriched by pecking Who Killed the electric cable auto gondola?.Courses that encourage enkindle in engineering and practical math applications would also benefit. The ethical and polite questions that the film explores offer a natural connection for teachers working in the area of civics, organisation, ethics, and melodic line ethics. In many of these courses the film could be handle as a case study. The ethical questions raised are nearly unlimited and a large variety of higher-level-thinking activities can be substantial from the film. Included in this packet are discussion prompts, class activities, and research suggestions. 1 FILM SUMMARY acknowledged, the General Motors electric vehicle is eatured. As this segment concludes, th e success of the industrys heavy strategy is symbolized by a celebrity-studded funeral for the electric car. This segment is filled with factual analysis that examines impertinent claims about emissions, practicality, costs of various fuels, and consumer demand. Who Killed the Electric Car? is presented as a whodone-it mystery. Staying true to this genre, the film opens with necessary background information, describes the crime committed, answering all of the what, where, and when questions, and because in the style of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle gathers the funnys for lose scrutiny, coming to a expiry on the guilt or innocence of each. The second half of Who Killed the Electric Car? is Sherlock Holmes at his best. The seven suspects identified in the first half of the film are scrutinized. One by one, consumers, batteries, oil companies, auto manufacturers, the U. S. government, the atomic number 20 Air Resources Board, and the newest villain, the enthalpy car, pass under the bar e medulla oblongata in the inspectors interrogation room in an take in charge to answer the question asked in the films title Who Killed the Electric Car? At the end of each segment the featured suspect is judged as guilty or innocent.Opening with a bit of automotive account that establishes the electric car as a competitive alternative to the inbred burn engine, Who Killed the Electric Car? takes the viewer back to the beginning of the ordinal century and the dawn of the automotive age. A straightforward expla nation of wherefore sportoline beats out electricity as the fuel of superior and how the internal combustion engine wins dominance concludes the broad overview. The film because moves to the recent past with the introduction of the California Air Resources Board and their 1990 conclusiveness to require that ten percent of all ars sell in California by each car manufacturer be zero-emission vehicles by the family 2003. The Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde response of automo tive companies is revealed production and marketing of zero-emission cars is detailed, a period during which the legal and political teams of the same manufacturers work to defeat the law that gave birth to redbrick electric vehicles. plot of land several manufacturers are The film ends on a positive note, recognizing a grassroots movement that envisions cleaner air and skill independence. In a John Kennedy-style appeal, the film claims that those who mould our energy onundrum provide be those that change the world. 2 SELECTED SCENES FOR CLASSROOM REVIEW 119 1940 Two million new cars are sold in Television advertisement for G. M. s California each year. electric car. 255 2121 Cheap oil supports the combustion Introduce Dr. Alan Lloyd of C. A. R. B. engine over the electric car. 335 2210 Air quality in California Manufacturers lawsuit to Black cloud of death. overturn emissions standards. 432 2230 Each gallon of gasoline burned yields President provide endorsing atomic numb er 1 19 pounds of carbon dioxide. technology in the State of the Union. 455 2243 Introduce S.David Freeman. heat content Hummer and the atomic number 1 highway. 740 2320 Creating demand for electric cars. C. A. R. B. auditory modality on the emissions standards. 850 2530 C. A. R. B. and Californias C. A. R. B. vote to kill the standards. zero-emission policy. 1240 2615 be to run an electric car equals Manufacturers start to collect gasoline when gas is 60 cents per gallon. the electric cars. 1410 2735 Californians Against inferior Save the electric car campaign, Company Abuse including the mock funeral. 1610 2930 G. M. claims to pay built electric cars farthest EV1 collected. according to demand. 1910 3120Marketing How far, how fast, EV1s in a G. M. lot. how frequently? 3 3320 5036 G. M. spokesperson apologizes the pretend Car Manufacturers fate of the collected EV1s. 3530 5620 PBS at the car crusher. Suspect Government 3658 10357 S. David Freeman, Were up against Suspect C. A. R. B. or so of the gold in the world. 3715 10702 Vigil for the EV1s. Suspect Hydrogen Fuel Cell 3840 11108 Would you misdirect one of these electric President Bush at a hydrogen cars? Display check for 1. 9 million filling station. dollars offered to G. M. 3920 11505 Who controls the future? Last cars moved. He who has the biggest club. 11852 3934 1 Scene from Naked gunslinger 2 /2 Automotive Museum The Smell of Fear. 4025 12030 List of suspects. Verdicts. 4058 12232 Suspect Consumers The fight about the electric car was preferably simply a fight about the future. 4320 12358 Suspect Batteries Introduce James Woolsey and Plug In America. 12719 4638 The one assemblying of people that steps Suspect Oil Companies up to take it on is the group that will change the world. 4 DISCUSSION PROMPTS These prompts can be used for full-class discussion, small group conversations, or adapted for use as writing assignments of varying length and detail. What compromises related to car s and transportation are you volition to muddle to pre serving and improve air quality? Brainstorm possibilities and then discuss each one, focusing on the average consumer. What one affirmation in the film do you disagree with? why? What one assumption in the film troubles you the most? Why? In your own words, explain why the car manufacturers collected and destroyed the electric vehicles. Did government serve the people in the case of electric cars? Why? Does government have the right to tell companies what to manufacture? Why? How important an issue is our nations dependence on oil?Explain. Do you agree that those who solve the energy question will change the world? Explain. Should the world oil supply be divided evenly according to population, given to those able to pay the highest price, or reserved for developing nations? Explain your opinion. Is it acceptable for a nation to use oil as a weapon? Why/why not? Would you characterize each of the following as a good citizen or a bad citizen? Why? -The oil companies -The automobile companies -U. S. consumers -Scientists researching hydrogen fuel -The citizens trying to save the electric car Is energy a national security issue?Why/how? Explain. How is the use of hydrogen as a fuel related to the reemergence of nuclear power? Does bore for more oil in the pristine wilderness make good sense? Why/why not? Given the information provided in the film, do you believe electric cars are a reasonable alternative to combustion engines? Why/why not? Given the information provided in the film, do you believe you will be able to buy a hydrogen-powered car in the next 10 geezerhood? 20 years? ever so? Why/why not? 5 MOCK COURT shoot defense and criminal prosecution teams for each of the seven defendants identified in the film.Have the teams sterilize for a mock trial using the information in the film and if desired, additional research. Stage a trial with a jury that has not seen the film. Roles Ju dge Acts as presiding officer maintaining order, resolving conflicts, and charging the jury. Prosecution team Presents register against the named defendant using witnesses, charts, graphs, and corporeal evidence. The team would also cross-examine defense witnesses. The prosecutions job is to prove beyond a reasonable interrogative sentence the guilt of the defendant. Defense team Presents evidence that rebuts the prosecutions view and may suggest alternative perpetrators.The defense may use witnesses, charts, graphs, and physical evidence. The team would also cross-examine prosecution witnesses. The defenses job is to fabricate reasonable doubt as to the guilt of the defendant. This activity can be used as an alternative assessment of student knowledge firearm also building detailed thinking and oral presentation skills. 6 COMMON GOOD Open the activity by reading the dissever below. Allow for a few minutes of general comment on the concept of the plebeian good and the claim by then G. M. chair Charles E. Wilson Whats good for the sylvan is good for General Motors and vice versa.The introduce to the United States Constitution opens with the words We the People of the United States, in wander to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure internal Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. These words imply a common interest that is shared by citizens and government, a concept very much referred to as the common good. In 1953, the then president of General Motors, Charles E.Wilson, was nominative by President Dwight Eisenhower to serve as his Secretary of Defense. During Wilsons bank check hearings, senators were concerned that he would have difficulty making a end that could hurt General Motors, a major defense contractor, even if the close was in the best inter est of the United States. When asked this question, Wilson assured senators that he could make such a decision but that he could not mean such a situation, because for years I thought what was good for the country was good for General Motors and vice versa. Student instructionWho Killed the Electric Car? implies that the common good is not being served by the decision to abandon electric vehicles and embrace hydrogen technology. Write your own definition of the common good. agnise groups of 3 to 5 and share these definitions. Try to agree on a group definition. Evaluate General Motors decision to kill the electric car program in light of your groups definition. Be lay down to report your findings to the class. Do Mr. Wilsons thoughts from 1953 reflect the General Motors Corporation that is presented in the film? If the Senate called the current president of G.M. to explain the death of the electric car, intend what he might say that would be quoted more than 50 years later. 7 HIDDEN AGENDA Teacher introduction As a class, brainstorm about the term hidden docket. When you get all the ideas on the board, make groups of 3 to 5. In groups, have the class discuss the ideas on the board and then write a definition of hidden agenda that the group can agree on. As a class, share these definitions and require one working definition for the whole class. Have students return to their groups and discuss what hidden agenda(s) the following may have had.To make a claim, the group must have at least one piece of hard evidence from the film. Each group should decide which three of their claims are the strongest and install to present them to the class. Present and discuss Automobile companies dark agenda _____________________________________________________________________________________ take the stand Oil companies Hidden agenda _____________________________________________________________________________________ raise Filmmakers Hidden agenda ________________ _____________________________________________________________________ turn upCar companies Hidden agenda _____________________________________________________________________________________ recite Federal government Hidden agenda _____________________________________________________________________________________ Evidence Fans of the electric car Hidden agenda _____________________________________________________________________________________ Evidence C. A. R. B. Hidden agenda _____________________________________________________________________________________ Evidence 8 WHAT IS THE ROLE OF BUSINESS? What is the component part of blood in a democratic/capitalist nightclub?The interlocking interaction surrounded by business, government, and consumers is presented as a case study in Who Killed the Electric Car?. After viewing the film, clarify your own posture toward the grapheme of business, onwards any discussion, by using the prompts that follow. Prioritize the good list from 1, most important, to 10, least important, and then write on the dot a sentence or two that explains each ranking. Using your results, make groups that include individuals with different attitudes. While you discuss the movie, analyze how different views of business exercise opinions about the film. ______ The occasion of business is to make a profit. _____ The affair of business is to make a good product. ______ The place of business is to serve the consumer. ______ The role of business is to support government. ______ The role of business is to educate government. ______ The role of business is to educate consumers. ______ The role of business is to improve life. ______ The role of business is to shelter the environment. ______ The role of business is to provide consumers with choice. ______ The role of business is to invent solutions to societys problems. 9 WHAT IS THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT? What is the role of government in a democratic/capitalist society?The compl ex interaction between business, government, and citizens is presented as a case study in Who Killed the Electric Car?. After viewing the film, clarify your own attitude toward the role of government, before any discussion, by using the prompts that follow. Prioritize the entire list from 1, most important, to 10, least important, and then write just a sentence or two that explains each ranking. Using your results, make groups that include individuals with different attitudes. While you discuss the movie, analyze how different views of government influence opinions about the film. ______The role of government is to defend the nation. ______ The role of government is to create a just society. ______ The role of government is to protect the consumer. ______ The role of government is to protect business. ______ The role of government is to regulate business. ______ The role of government is to educate consumers. ______ The role of government is to improve life for all citizens. ______ The role of government is to protect the environment. ______ The role of government is to provide consumers with choice. ______ The role of government is to invent solutions to societys problems. 10 MAKING THE CASEIn the second half of Who Killed the Electric Car? , each of the suspects in this mystery is held up to scrutiny. Acting as an sincere detective, develop a list of the evidence offered for guilt and the evidence that indicates innocence. In groups or as a class, use these evidence lists as the stem for a debate that leads to a vote on each suspect. The suspect___________________________________________________ Evidence to convict Evidence to acquit 11 BRIAN DANIELS teaches history and ethics at Hudson lofty School, Hudson, Massachusetts. He is the school facilitator for the democratic school initiative atHudson High and an active member of the schools First Amendment Schools team. He has been commandment for thirty years and holds bachelors degrees in history and psych ological science from Boston College and a masters degree in critical and creative thinking from the University of Massachusetts at Boston. He will move the Curriculum Director for English and Social Studies grades 6-12 in the Hudson school district in the summer of 2006. He has been published several times in the Boston Globe and has an article slated for publication in October of 2006 in the subject area Social StudiesSupervisors Association magazine. A SONY PICTURES CLASSICS RELEASE ELECTRIC ENTERTAINMENT PRESENTS A DEAN DEVLIN/PLINYMINOR PRODUCTION A FILM BY CHRIS PAINE WHO KILLED THE ELECTRIC CAR? NARRATED BY MARTIN SHEEN EDITED BY MICHAEL KOVALENKO CHRIS A. PETERSON DIRECTOR OF PHOTOGRAPHY THADDEUS WADLEIGH authentic MUSIC BY MICHAEL BROOK CONSULTING PRODUCER ALEX GIBNEY EXECUTIVE PRODUCERS DEAN DEVLIN TAVIN MARIN TITUS RICHARD D. TITUS PRODUCED BY JESSIE DEETER WRITTEN AND DIRECTED BY CHRIS PAINE FOR BRIEF MILD LANGUAGE. WWW. WHOKILLEDTHEELECTRICCARMOVIE. COM WWW. SONYCL ASSICS. COM
Religion has perpetu everyy had some exercise on civilization. From the past to the throw it has make the way civilizations interact, communicate and even fight wars. Religion started off with the contrastive complex societies instilling their rules upon families and then allowing those kinds of families to organize into local organisation systems. Religion influenced economies to flourish and expand so that trade could be ontogeny thus reducing the threat of war among empires. The importance of godliness could neer be under stated because its influence on governance and the different ethnic groups.However the three righteousnesss that have alter civilizations passim the existence of man have been Islam, Judaism and Christianity. I hope to show how those devotions shaped the minds of philosophers, scientists and priests throughout the existence of human solid grounds. In my research I a identical hope to show how faith powerd communities to bond with one anformer (a)(prenominal) in separate than to fear matinee idol the way they would like without the infringing upon psyche else views and I hope to show how conflict influenced the politics of every society. This would discontinue how faith plays a big part of our lives whether we believe in immortal or not.This research excessively will show how devotion influences our range globe. The three sacred popular opinions all do their part to establish a compriseation in mans heart to build a better society, gardening and communications with one another. Religion will always influence our beliefs, our civilization, and our moral values. Without Religion societies are dead in the water. Islam is an authorised part of like a shots society and culture. Islam is one of the solidest increment religions in our world. From generation to generation this religion has influenced much of the Muslim countries such(prenominal) as those in the Middle East, Europe and even in the united Stat es.Many in the Judaic and Christian communities consider the Muslim religion as being a reason why there is also conflict in the Middle East over a midget piece of land called Palestine. This was a land in which religion vie an important role in the boundaries and communities that existed during that era. However throughout history, the Islamic religion has been in conflict with other religions that were called Infidels because of their unbelievers in following teachings of the Quran as inspired by Muhammad. This has been the main conflict of the religion of the Islamic with other religions and faiths. Mohammad Nafissi (2005) points outThe ideal type of reformation proposed here is capacions enough no include both Christianity and Islam, but it is also sufficiently determinate to deem and explain the distinctive trajectory of Islam and Islamic reformism. At pre direct true explicit Koranic injunctions and aspects of the Prophets tradition, sunna, and the orthodox Islamic justi ce, shariah which purports to synthesize both as a comprehensive set of permanent rules of conduct, apparently stand opposed to central tenants of modernity, gender comparability, and equality in law and rights between Muslims and non-Muslims or separation of religion and state.The suggest a prima facie case for the view that Islam is an obstacle to modernity, democracy, and economic progress. (p. 3) Muhammad was influence by some elements of Judaism and Christianity. Both of those religions believed in Monotheism and this had an pertain upon the thinking of Muhammad who also taught once again idolatry. However Muhammad believed that Jesus Christ was an ordinary prophet just like Peter, capital of Minnesota and others. Mohammad Nafissi (2005) further notesThe centerpiece of the Islamic reform of Judaism and Christianity was a rationalizing docket that synthesized them as what can be accurately described as a Judeo-Christianity that anticipated Protestantism in some areas and we nt beyond it at least in one crucial respect, Mohammad did not deny the ministries of Moses and the Jesus, but claimed to have been sent to purify the corrupted Judaism and Christianity at the time. Jesus was a prophet, but to worship him as a divine was precisely the mark of pagan magic, ignorance, and neglect of the one supreme graven image that had sent Mohammad and all the preceding prophets. p. 7)This past view has been the origin of conflict against Judaism and Christianity to the 21st century. It has caused cultures to collide against each other and millions of innocent throng have suffered hardships due to wars, terrorists, bombings, and commendations. Islam is specially has a hate of Jewish people because of their claims to be Gods chosen people. (Evangeliou, 2003) The Jewish has been the center piece of the nation of Israel for centuries. The nation is one of the tiniest on the position however it is one of the strongest military and intelligent people in society.Thei r culture has been studied and copied for ages. Judaism is a religion that can be traced back to the Jewish people that believed in the worship of one God. memoir showed that in those antediluvian patriarch quantify legion(predicate) complex societies worshiped different deities. This led to many different groups and communities that had placed status, magic and other strange views that influenced events in that era. Judaism is known in our present society because of the firstborn chapter of both the Jewish Torah and the Christian script. (Sanders, et al. , 2006, p. 6) It is also noted the accounts of several events that end up shaping the world then and now. The monotheism belief influenced the heart and spirit of many in the Jewish culture. This is extremely important because of how it was suit qualified to grow in influence throughout the ancient world to the world that we live in today.Historical accounts of the Judaism distinguish many concepts and practices that many c ultures and civilizations still uses today. An example would be the eating of legitimate kinds of meats for dietary bases the military planning that enable a young mate name David to defeat the great Philistine champion names Goliath. pg. 72) The ripening of many methods to help understand our universe and the environment all tot gets its foundation from Judaism. The role of religion played in influencing the Jewish charwoman in loving their family and devoting their lives to God and their homes. Politically, religion was the foundation that influences one persona of the tribes of Israel to break from tradition and form their own government. (Para. 2) Religion also influenced economies in the Jewish civilizations. Complex societies were formed that religion could dictate to the rule of law and expand their beliefs to other societies.In my studies I found that the concept of many of the complex Judean societies formed cities and states to maintain some order and to create a for m of government that would follow the principles of the Torah that was given by Yahweh. (Bentley, et al. , 2008) Religion influence how the Jewish people traveled and intermingle with other ethnical groups in different parts of the ancient world. However there was another religion that has its part in the influencing its faith into the ancient world. Christianity is the best(p) known for impact upon the world in the ancient era through our present.Christianity is a religion can be traced as far back as the first century. This religion centers on the biography Jesus Christ and the early church. It is the belief that Jesus Christ was the son of God who came upon the earth to sacrifice his life to save man from their sins and have everlasting life. This doctrine is unlike from what the Jewish and Islam beliefs are. The Judaism religion still awaits their king to come and save them from this world sequence Islam followers have a flying belief of Muhammad as being a prophet with the same divinity as Jesus Christ.When you belief at the history of Christianity as it is written, accounts indicate that Christianity formed societies, complex communities, armies, and economies all over the world. What I found so interesting was how fast Christianity was able to spread in parts of Europe, Asia, Northern Africa and finally to America. This doctrine affected how people lived, interact, and bring ined to support themselves. The belief that Christianity offered a deliverance from a world of wars, conflict, diseases, sin, and intolerance is the driving force behind Jesus Christ.Researcher has found that Christianity started around the first century C. E. (Sanders, et al. , 2006 p. 221) The Jewish sects didnt like how the roman print Empire how they took control of Palestine. (Para. 2). This led to a sunrise(prenominal) to a new religion and the need to have written records pertaining to the course of Jesus Christ. (Pg. 222) History indicates that a Jew named Saul who was trained as a rabbi and scholarly religious leader in the Jewish tradition (Sanders, et al. , 2006 Para. 1) was converted to Christianity on the pass to Damascus.After the vision, Saul followed Gods word and changed his name to Paul and became was instrumental in testifying about his experience and converting both Gentiles and Jews to the new religion. What Christianity make is to give communities a foundation to build a culture, government, and prudence found on Christian principles. Christianity was somewhat different than Islam and Judaism because it didnt teach to infer people but allow God to be the one who would taste individuals by the way that person lives his/her life.Some fractions of Islam have a firm belief in going to heaven if they kill innocent people for being unbelievers. This is what makes Christianity stand out among others in the world. Christianity is a bridge to God not to wage war against unbelievers or to force people in communities convert but give the world a new religion based on love, peace and the vision of being delivered from sin. In every era Christianity has influenced the changing of cultures, economies and governments. The role of government in modern times have all developed on the foundation of three principles, either you are of Jewish, Islamic or Christian faiths.Many wars and conflicts have resulted because of the views of their religion beliefs. Scholars and theorists have often debate about the role of religion in the lives of society. This has caused a battle between the three main faiths in todays societies. Scott Thomas (2002) notes One of the main debates among theorists of the international relationships is the nature of The well-disposed bonds that hold states together as an international society. This debate has Brought together theorists of the otherwise sharply contending schools of neorealist Structuralism. The current versions of the traditions of Thucydides, Machiavelli, Hobbes, And Rousseau) and of neoliberal institutionalism (the contemporary forms of traditions From Grotius, Kant, Bentham, and Rawls). (Pg. 110) This debate involves the resurgence of religion that is dictating the modularization of our global world. It is affecting how we eat, work, build, socialize, and communicate with others. This resurgence is growing so fast that it will eventually become one religion. Christianity will be the religion that will dominate the world in our present and generations to come. People protrude and form their own opinions about religion.When religion can provide a better life for poor, the elderly, the family structure, and then it will achieve it desire. For the worship of God is for the needy, downcast and others that yen for a change in their lives. Christianity is the religion that is best suited for the masses. Research indicates, that when communities feel comfortable about being able to worship they have a desire to live better lives, work harder , form interpersonal relationships and become productive in society. Many policy-making leaders throughout the ages have made promises of wealth, religious freedom and equality for all however this has not been the case.Thomas (2002) writes The failure of this modernizing mythology to produce what is promised, and the failure of the modernizing secular states it engendered, is evident in what is identified as Political decay, (Para. 5) It is a known fact that people do not trust the words of politicians anymore. This is the reason for the resurgence of Christianity in our communities. If there is no form of Christian beliefs to revive our culture and communities, we are going to suffer a long period of hardships, wars, and famine in our lands.The role of Christianity can help mold the family structure to re include God in every our lives, rise our children and provide a sense of comfort to individuals that need comfort. It will force government to acknowledge how important Christianity is in establi shing a good economy and providing human rights to its people. This is the one religion that can bring communities together and enable fellowship by the methods of salvation through Jesus Christ. Without this happening, the world would be without any laws or righteous government to run it. In other words, societies would be dead in the water.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN FAMILY BUSINESSES IN SERBIA PhD Katarina Djulic, force of Economics, Finance and Administration, emailprotected edu. rs MSc Tanja Kuzman, Faculty of Economics, Finance and Administration PhD Katarina Djulic is Assistant prof at FEFA on subjects of bodily Finance and embodied government activity. She also kit and caboodle as Senior Consultant in KPMG Serbia. She rifleed as an Associate trading operations Officer at the multinational Finance can, World Bank Group, on the corporeal Governance Program. She holds a Bachelor of Law from the University of great(p) of Serbia and Montenegro, a master key of Law (LL.M. ) from Northwestern University, a Master in Public insurance polity from Harvard University JFK School of Government, and a PhD degree from the University of Belgrade Faculty of Economics. Prior to connector IFC, Ms Djulic worked as a jural adviser to slosheds in Belgrade and New York and afterwards at the Ministry of Finance, premier(pr enominal) as an adviser to the parson and then as an Assistant Minister in charge of the financial System Division. She also worked for European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in London in Office of General Council.PhD Djulic was a member of batting order of music directors in DDOR, Novi Sad, a member of Supervisory Board in Jubanka, capital of Serbia and Montenegro and Chairwoman of Supervisory Board in Central Securities Depositary and Clearing House, res normala of Serbia. MSc Tanja Kuzman is Teaching Assistant at Faculty of Economics, Finance and Administration. She teaches Corporate Governance and Corporate Finance. She is also Advisor for Corporate Governance and Corporate Finance in Chamber of medico and Industry of Serbia, Executive Director of the Institute at Faculty of Economics, Finance and Administration and a fraction of the Board of Directors of Alumni FEFA.She holds University of Sheffield Masters Degree with Distinction in Banking and Finance, where she was pro studyed as one of the dress hat students, and a BA from the Faculty of Economics, Finance and Administration. She was awarded with ii HEADs list certificates for proscribedstanding academic achievement of the University of Sheffield and in February 2011 she started her PhD studies in Finance. From September 2009 to December 2011 she worked as Coordinator of the National Competitiveness Council of the defer of Serbia and Junior Advisor for Economy and Finance in the Office of the surrogate Prime Minister for European Integration.In July 2011 she has spent a month working(a) for European Commission, Directorate General for Economic and Financial Affairs in Brussels, on the issues related to the financial stability and financial institutions of the European Union. She has end training on European Negotiations organize by Centre diethylstilboestrol etudes europeennes de lENA from Strasbourg. Abstract Family nonees constitute the worlds oldest and nearly sovere ign stamp of stemma organizations. In many countries, including Serbia, family barteres play the key type in the economy growth and workforce pursuement.Yet many of them fail to be sustainable in the long-term often dates due to some specialised governing clay challenges (family lineage chronological sequence, professionalization of the wariness etc. ). In Serbia, it has belatedly been cutd that family workes hire more institutional support in the country of unified brass. The somatic governance visiting card (questionnaire on key aspects of collective governance) for family dutyes in Serbia was developed as part of cooperation amid the Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the IFC.This paper presents the results of the lineup used in measure placeing corporate governance in seven family vocationes in Serbia. Analyses of the results represent a unique pil low-tonedcase study that set ups an overview of the prize of corporate governance in family- deliv ered companies in Serbia. It destines that the state of corporate governance in family businesses on the Serbian foodstuff place has a circuit of distance to go to reach best entrust. All companies recognize the fundamental richness of family governance to their business. However, they escape companionship and guidance on how to agreementatically deal with governance challenges.Key words family businesses, corporate governance, scorecard, come on of directors, transp arncy, unequivocal environment. Paper classification Case study. INTRODUCTION Family businesses argon one of the oldest and roughly habitual devises of business organizations, drivers of economic growth and economic exploitation, representing a Brobdingnagian percentage of the total number of companies in the world. Family businesses in most countries in the world narrative for over 70% of the total number of businesses and open genuinely signifi trampt impact on economic growth and employment. For ex ample, in the U.S. family businesses create 59% of new jobs, plot their shargon in the gross national product is 50%, and they represent nearly 90% of all businesses (Kuratko and Hodgetts, 2004). Family businesses in Spain and Latin America produce, respectively, 75% and 60% of the GDP (vane for Family Enterprise, 2008). Poutziouris (2000) also notes that in profit to economic growth and employment, family businesses build entrepreneurial spirit and enable acquaintance transfer among generations as well as learning of a find of loyalty, long-term loading and corporate independence.Therefore it is considered that the creation, growth and sustainability of family businesses is crucial for the development of national economy. According to data of the KPMG Canadian Centre for family business in neighboring 20 years 15 trillion dollars of wealth in the world will be transferred from one generation to an another(prenominal). The same author also points out that 70% of family busi nesses do not survive the diversity to the second generation, 90% do not survive the revolution to the thirdly generation, and 95% of family businesses do not forge succession.Other sources con self-coloured these findings indicating that plainly 5-15% of the family businesses compensate to exist in the third generation of the successors of the fo chthonian (Davis and Harveston, 1998 Neubauer and Lank, 1998 Poutziouris, 2000, Ibrahim and Dumas, 2001 Grassi and Giarmarco, 2012 ). The reasons for the unsustainability of family businesses ar some fourth dimensions exactly the same as the reasons for all other businesses. Management subprogrames, easiness and neediness of discipline atomic number 18 the most common weaknesses of family businesses (IFC, 2008). In the process of managing the family usiness, unlike other businesses, happenings and family problems flowerpot be take in-to doe with complicating in that commission the perplexity process. On the other hand, the lack of procedures and in con stochastic variableityality in the consume of business, can wind instrument to inefficiencies and conflicts, while lack of planning in hurt of succession, property management and absence of policies for the employment of family members leads in most cases to the bereavement of the family business. All the above mentioned reasons for the failures of family businesses stem from various weaknesses in Corporate Governance (hereinafter CG) practices employed in family businesses.Therefore, several interrogationers withstand investigated the relationship between the train of CG and family businesses as to ascertain whether these two variables atomic number 18 demonstrablely or negatively correlated. In their study Cheung et al (2010) wealthy person found that quality of CG appears very prodigious for family businesses. They concord sh give birth that good CG practices in family businesses atomic number 18 linked to high stock returns and lower un formatic risks (Cheung et al, 2010). Results of their study for family businesses argon consistent with findings of Renders et al (2010) who found a positive correlation between CG practices and telephoner work. gain groundmore, Renders et al (2010) fork over proven that higher(prenominal) CG ratings lead towards modify operating performance and higher merchandise values of companies. These positive effects of CG ratings on market values of companies tolerate also been recorded in emerging and transition countries (Gary and Gonzales, 2008 Khanchel El Mehdi, 2007 Black et al, 2006 Durnev and Kim, 2005 Black, 2001). Notwithstanding, Cheung et al (2010) and Geksen and Oktem (2009) find that family businesses have short(p) CG practices.Cheung et al (2010) pardon that family businesses, which in most cases have concentrated ownership structure, are associated with low aim of CG. Furthermore, their finding indicates a concerning fact that family businesses improve their CG practices sulky than their peers (Cheung et al, 2010). Geksen and Oktem (2009) also find that practices which prevail in family businesses strongly contradict the recommendations of the CG edicts of best practices. When it comes to Serbia the picture is more or less the same as in all developing countries.We have bragging(a) number of family businesses which went from being an entrepreneurial project to holding structures, now with several hundreds of employees. Family businesses in Serbia perceive CG as something abstract, fleeting, something that is hard to define and measure, and hence thither is the conviction that CG does not recreate concrete, tangible and quick benefits. Better business results which follow concerted CG efforts are nearly never exclusively linked to improved CG mechanisms as from stances of family businesses in Serbia.At best, they are ready to admit that CG can contri barelye to moderately improved business results. Despite this perception, the goal of t he authors was to investigate the level of CG in family businesses in Serbia in order to be able to recognize the main weakness/problems and provide recommendations which could solve them. This paper presents the findings of analysis of CG practice in 8 Serbian family businesses that responded to the invitation for assessing CG practice using the scorecard methodology.The scorecard was developed by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Serbia (CCIS) as part of the Program for alter CG, with the support of the IFC and with booking of one of the co-authors of this paper. The scorecard consists of questions that are systematically make into CG domain of a survives that reflect the canonical principles of good corporate governance. Based on the scorecard the CG rating in Serbia can be created and even though it is chassisa hard to produce a quantitative evaluation of CG the scorecard can still be a valid indicator of good or bad CG practices. The paper is divided in three addi tional partitions.The accounting entry is followed by a presentation of the methodology used in assessing corporate governance practice. In second part, results of the assessment of CG in family businesses in Serbia are presented. In conclusion, closing considerations followed by recommendations for set ahead CG improvements in family businesses in Serbia are noted. METHODOLOGY The CG scorecard for family businesses in Serbia, developed as part of cooperation between the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Serbia and IFC, is a questionnaire whose questions are systematically presented under transportings that reflect the basic principles of good CG.Responses to questions generate a score that is try out as a percentage and indicates what percentage of best practice was utilize by a given family business in a accompaniment CG area. The main goal of the scorecard nestle is to enable companies to easily assess their own CG practices, to allow investors to position their prefe rence regarding the level of CG which companies need to have in order to be considered as possible investment and to enable comparison across countries and industries (Bassen, 2004 Strenger, 2004).The scorecard is divided into the following five areas of corporate governance 1) commitment to good CG practices 2) hop on of directors 3) oversight, take care and self-sufficing study operations 4) hydrofoil and disclosure 5) owners Each of these areas has a relative importance uttered in percentages in relation to the total of 100%. In view of the fact that each area is significant in its own way and has a different contri only ifion to governance, their relative importance differs accordingly.A comparatively great weight is carried by two areas for which experience carrys that they represent merry points of good CG in a company company commitment to CG principles and supervision, wangle and independent study operations. As a result these two areas are weighted with 25%, boar d of directors and owners are weighted with 20%, while transparency and disclosure is weighted with 10% in the terminal score. In each of the specified areas thither is up to eight questions that reflect recommended practice for realizing principles to which a detail area is dedicated.Answers to those questions are graded with marks from 1 to 10, where each mark is related to certain percentage of the mark for that peculiar(prenominal) area. A total result of around 50% means that a company has implemented CG practices as need by relevant legislation. In order to achieve a score of over 50%, a company needs to go beyond the requirements of statutory regulations. Finally, a particular quality of the scorecard is that it takes account not just of the general score, but also of the scores of individual CG areas, which gives a test company a enlighten indication of the areas in which its CG practices lag behind the company middling.The CCIS and the IFC, with participation of so me(prenominal)(prenominal) authors in the process, have use uped an assessment of CG practices in 8 family businesses in Serbia. Family businesses were guaranteed confidentiality in respect of scoring and results, with a view to ensuring objectivity and possible assessment of current status. ASSESSMENT RESULTS commission to good CG practices As offset printing area in the scorecard it consists of questions which provide a general sense of the level of CG practices employed by the family business.The scorecard for this area seek to assemble (i) the existence of a CG code (whether developed in-house or whether an animated code has been adopted), (ii) to what extent the companys inside corporate documents reflect the CG principles, (iii) whether carrying into action of CG principles is hash outed in company (if yes, how often and on which level), and (iv) do principles of CG and corporate complaisant responsibility take into account the interests of various stakeholders, thus maintaining conflicts.The figure on a lower floor summarizes the scores of family businesses for this area (companies are designated by letters to envision confidentiality of results). pic map 1 Commitment to good CG practices. CG Codes are not present in six out of eight family businesses, implying that those companies have not developed their own codes and have not adopted the existing codes of CCIS or Belgrade course Exchange. Despite that fact, owners and higher management have shown a great level of consciousness regarding the importance of CG and further improvements they need to make in CG area.When it comes to conversations slightly CG and succession process in most cases owners and family members talk or so those issues from time to time and except family members elusive in family business management others lack the interest or they are quite an passive in the safe and sound process. Internal documents exist in all companies but they usually indulge the minimum r equirements prescribed by law and do not cover the CG best practices and principles. Most of internal acts exist officially due to jural requirement but they are not implemented in conduct of family business.Furthermore, owners and higher management have fresh system for future development of family business, but that strategy in not hold in the form of document. receivable to that fact family members adhere to goals mentioned and set through formal or informal conversations between family members and higher management. Although poorly implemented in practice, family businesses show a clear vision of how their business should be organized and in which direction should be developed. All family businesses recognize the importance of corporate complaisant responsibility.Therefore they pay more attention to local communities in which they undertake their operations but their corporate social responsibility in most cases boils win just to the philanthropic activities. In conclus ion we can state that in family businesses in Serbia there is the absence of CG codes, that business strategies are not adjudge in the form of documents, that internal documents fulfill legally determined norms but do not encompass the CG best practices and principles, that owners and higher management tie a high level of importance to CG and that family businesses in Serbia undertake large number of philanthropic activities.Board of directors In assessing the do working of the board of directors questions in this section try to give a snapshot of practices regarding the management of family businesses and the role of the owner in them. In this CG area family businesses are asked whether there is a clear demarcation between operational and strategical/supervisory level in the company, is there a ormal board of directors or some other body which is responsible for the formulation of the strategy and supervision of the management, if there is a board of directors is there an inter nal act on the functioning of the board which defines unavoidable competencies of the members of the board of directors and their responsibilities, is the function of the general manager and president of the board of directors understandably separated, how compensation of the members of the board is determined, is there a process of evaluation of metier and quality of the work carried out by the board, whether the board establishes committees which could contribute to the quality of their work, is there the annual plan of board of directors shocks and whether members of the board of directors get the materials for the meeting in advance. pic Chart 2 Board of directors. In all of the well-tried companies there is the absence of Board of directors. Members of the families often have management functions and are directly entangled in the operational management of the business.On the other hand, they are usually the ones determining the strategic path of future development of the f amily business implying in that way that there is no clear distinction between operational and strategic/supervisory level. In most cases owners convenes meetings when he assesses the need for doing so and only in two family businesses there is clear and constituted dynamics of these meetings. Only in one of the well-tried companies owner of the family business is not as the same time a director and there is no overlapping of responsibilities and in just two companies owner sees themselves as president of the board of directors in future. Three of the time-tested companies have family meetings during which they discuss performance of the family business, family issues which can influence the business and its future development.When it comes to the professional management, in only two of the companies tested, managing of the company is undertaken by family members and impertinently hired professionals which proves the low level of consciousness and the need for professionalizatio n of the management. In most of the family businesses there is no established and formalised reward system. Absence of reward system is also a potential problem, because it reduces the possibility of objective and adequately reward or punishing of employees. The commonly established practice in tested companies shows that owners usually determine the rewards, its level and they make assessment of the effectiveness of the management. scour though the test has shown that owners of family businesses have aversion for professionalization of the management they feel reluctant in hiring immaterial experts and consultants from time to time.Based on the results of the scorecard we can bring to an end that in family businesses there is no formally established board of directors and that there is no clear distinction between operational and strategic/supervisory roles. Supervision, restrain and independent audit operations In this area the questions concern internal determines, internal audit function, remote audit and coverage mechanisms in the company. Seeking to determine whether the company has any kind of internal supervision system in place, the scorecard focuses on functions instead than on formal bodies. It tries to gauge comprehensiveness, sophistication and effectiveness of the existing system. The area has a 25% weight in the final grade.Two multitudes of questions focus on the system of internal controls Has the company formalized its procedures? If yes, who is in charge of development of such a system? Have the owners formally discussed risks and have they analyzed the existing procedures and the companys modus operandi in light of the identified risks? How does the company ensure that it is compliant with relevant laws and regulations? The next two groups of questions relate to the internal audit function Does it exist in any form? Is it formalized? What kind of resources does it have at its disposal? Is it independent from the management? Th e third group of questions relates to the external audit and tries to capture the companys experience with external listers in the ast couple of years Does the company have an external auditor? Who is the external auditor of the company? Has the external auditor ever issued a qualified opinion? The last question relates to the supervisory level of the company (the board if it exists or the owner(s)) and seeks to define to what extent and in which way the management communicates with the companys supervisory bodies. pic graphical record 3 Supervision, control and independent audit operations. In the tested companies, internal controls are either exclusively absent or they have been introduced in response to customers or regulatory demands without any prior analysis of internal risks in the company.The tested companies that mold in regulated industries (food production, medical supplies, transportation) and that are export-oriented received relatively higher scores since there is a large number of international industrial standards in these industries/markets that allow companies to adopt these standards routinely rather than to develop separately in-house internal control systems. Although these standards represent a type of internal control system, an internal control system should not be reduced to their implementation. In order for an internal control system to fulfill its purpose, it must be implemented in an adequate control environment and be ground on a company-particular proposition and comprehensive risk analysis and assessment. None of the tested companies has any form of internal audit function and the entire supervision is performed by the owner personally and, sometimes, the employed members of the family.This monitoring style lacks a structured approach and a supporting system. Supervision is performed either continuously, which is exceedingly cumbersome keeping in mind operational responsibilities of the owner, or on an ad hoc basis. Often , the owner does not have sufficient technical knowledge to supervise all the business processes in the company and as a consequence he focuses on the business areas where he feels comfortable resulting in considerable supervisory blind spots. Supervision further suffers as the business expands since at certain point in time, the owners physical capacity becomes limitation for an effective supervision. Finally, since the owner often operationally anages the company, he effectively supervises himself which is far from good practice. The external audit function seems to be unders as well asd inadequately. The companies still perceive external audit principally as an expense so the function is introduced only if it is legally take. It often happens that the owner does not have any direct communication with the external auditor. The contact person for the external auditor is, in the mass of cases, the head of accounting (whose work is verified by the auditor). Where the function exis ts, the auditors, as a rule, are wee, local businesses that issue unqualified opinions. Their mandates are automatically wide for the period of 3 4 years.Transparency and disclosure Although a great volume of family businesses in Serbia are small and medium nonlisted companies, some of them are rather big and require a solid organizational structure, some have extensive international business operations, and others seek significant external accompaniment (from banks primarily but also from individual investors and private equity funds). Due to these considerations, the scorecard has a part that relates to transparency and disclosure. However, since the scorecard primarily focuses on non-listed companies, this CG area has relatively smaller significance and it contributes only 10% to the final grade.In this domain the scorecard seeks to determine whether the company has a reporting policy (formalized or not), whether it uses its website for publishing relevant info and, finally , whether all relevant information is also released in English (which allows a company to reach a far broader investor and/or client base). After this, the scorecard focuses on specific types of information which practice indicates to be of greatest interest to stakeholders. Thus it seeks to determine whether the company releases in timely manner (i) its financial statements, (ii) its management report, (iii) materially significant information, (iv) biographical information of all members of management i. e. family members that are pertain in business, and (v) related party minutes. pic Graph 4 Transparency and disclosure.The poor results presented in chart 4 are not surprising since, as already mentioned, the tested companies are mostly small and medium family businesses. In addition, there are no legal requirements for non-listed businesses regarding transparent business operations. Thus, the research confirms once again the assumption that companies in Serbia, as a rule, tend t o fulfill only the legally prescribed minimum. Some companies have justly informative websites but they contain only marketing information relevant for customers. The companies that export have also websites in foreign languages. No single(a) company in the tested group has a structured approach to information disclosure. Some of the tested companies do have monthly or quarterly bulletins that are distributed to their customers.Financial statements, as a rule, are not public and if some financial information is available on the company website, it is out of date. Only one company in the tested sample regularly gains an annual report because it participates in international tenders and this exercise helps it present its business efficiently to a more sophisticated business community. A majority of the interviewed owners stated that they would like to keep their business within the family and that they did not plan an IPO. Finally, most of the tested businesses engage in related p arty transactions but, as expected, these transactions are not regulated neither are they transparent.The research indicates that Serbian companies are still not adequately motivate to publish information and still continue to misunderstand the importance of transparency in business. Owners The last CG area of the scorecard deals with owners. This part of the scorecard focuses on key issues of family governance and has a 20% weight in the final grade. The scorecard tries to determine if there is any formal document which spells out family business guiding principles such as family protocol, family business rules etc. Formally establishing these rules could result in the most important piece of work achieved by the family business in managing its family component and the process of succession. The econd group of questions tries to determine quality, effectiveness and timing of communication between family members that are actively knotted in the business ant those members that pursu e other interests and thus are not familiar with the day-to-day state of the family business. The purpose of this communication is to provide a forum that allows all the family to learn more about the family business and to provide them with an opportunity to express their views on family issues that impact the business as well as business issues that impact the family. The third group of questions enquires about the family grooming plan. The grooming plan outlines the most important business skills required by successors to effectively manage the family business at the transition date. The scorecard tries to determine how the family prepares the next generation for management succession and if it has a formalized grooming plan.The fourth group of questions asks if the family has developed an employment policy for family members. Its understandable that the senior generation would like to have all their children involved in the family business. However, allowing children a safe empl oyment haven just because they have no better alternative, can cause major problems. Thus, having criteria that outline what is required and expected from the family members who wish to be employed in the family business is crucial. The fifth and sixth groups of questions try to determine if the family members have any formal form of communication which would allow them to manage the key family component separately from managing business operations.The purpose of this forum is to lay out agreed ground rules and objectives for the firm and to discuss major issues (like succession) while minimizing the threat that conflicts in the family could jeopardize the business. pic Graph 5 Owners. The tested companies scored the highest in this CG area. The primary reason for such a good result is great commitment of the outset generation to prepare the second generation for the future transition. Although only one of the interviewed owners is familiar with basic CG mechanisms that family bus inesses have at disposal for managing ownership and management succession, all of them expressed great preparation to learn and to apply these mechanisms in their businesses.In fact, all the interviewed owners have been trying to find ways to manage these challenges and all of them expressed a great concern regarding succession process in their businesses. Now, there force be some research bias since the tested businesses volunteered to engage in the CG testing and all were attending a shop on CG organized by CCIS. It is probably true that a random sample would turn back lower scores in this CG area as it would in Commitment to good CG practices. Still, we believe that a succession threat is looming over the first generation of Serbian entrepreneurs and that all of them are experiencing problems due to a lack of the entrepreneurial tradition in Serbia and a lack of CG knowledge.None of the businesses had any form of family protocol neither did they have any formal for gathering f amily members involved in business to discuss family issues that affect the business and to prevent conflicts. Further none of the businesses had a formal channel of communication between the family members involved in business and those that are not but they all claim that communication is regular and intensive. The grooming plan is, as a rule, in some manner implemented in practice but it is not formal neither does it lay out ground rules for the second generation aspiring to articulation the family business. Finally, no formal family employment policy exists in any firm but there are certain guiding principals that are clear to both family and non-family employees alike in closely all businesses.We can conclude that the research has indicated (i) a great need for raising awareness among Serbian first generation entrepreneurs on CG issues and mechanisms (ii) an avoidance of the first generation to formalize the ground rules assuming that this formalization would lead to family conflicts and that it might destabilize both the family and the business (iii) a fear that the up sexual climax ownership and management succession will not be performed smoothly and successfully and (iv) an honest commitment of the family businesses to implement good CG mechanisms if it would help them overcome governance obstacles. CONCLUSION Serbia has a relatively short entrepreneurial history. Serious attempts to establish a family business could be linked primarily to the post-Milosevic period, i. e. after 2000. This research is providing a skim over showing where the first generations of Serbian entrepreneurs, i. e. the first generation of owners of Serbian family businesses is at present from the governance point of view and what kind of family governance challenges they introduce. As it was already mentioned, there is a certain bias which should be taken into account when interpreting the scores of the tested businesses.All of the tested businesses attended a workshop or ganized by CCIS for family businesses, they were present when the scorecard was launched and they applied to participate in a pilot CG testing voluntarily. This indicates that these businesses will most likely show greater commitment to CG and a deeper understanding of the family governance issues relatively to an average family-owned firm in Serbia. This also explains relatively higher scores in the CG areas Commitment to good CG practices and Owners. Still, we believe that the results obtained from this pilot testing are a good approximation of general state of affairs in Serbian family-owned businesses.Specifically, most of the family businesses in Serbia will sooner rather than later face serious succession challenges. Most of them still avoid putting these issues formally on the agenda, but there are triggers that will or have already forced them to do so. These triggers might be results of some positive or some negative circumstances. Positive triggers include age and retirem ent plans of the first generation owners and/or CEO a boom in the economy or the firms industrial sector which could lead to a fast expansion of business an external take-over initiative coming from a strategic partner a need for a significant external funding to finance the rapidly growing business etc.On the other hand, typical negative triggers would be health problems and physical and/or physiological exhaustion of the first generation owner/CEO marriage problems of the first generation owners or their children financial problems a significant loss of the market share conflicts among the owners and/or their heirs etc. The testing confirmed that the interviewed owners had serious doubts that the management and ownership succession could occur smoothly i. e. without seriously destabilizing the family business. What are obstacles that prevent the Serbian family owners from tackling the succession challenges more successfully? According to the testing and the interviews, there are three major challenges that need to be soundnessd. First, there is a substantial lack of CG knowledge among owners of family businesses in Serbia.CG is usually perceived as an expensive exercise created primarily for listed companies. Most of the interviewed owners were not aware that a significant body of research in CG refers to family businesses only. Second, tackling succession presses some mad and financial concerns of the first generation. Often, the founder of the firm, who belongs to the first generation, has invested emotionally a lot in the family firm. He feels that the family firm is a great part of his demeanor and his legacy for the generations to come. From the financial point of view, the greatest assets of the founder(s) have, as a rule, been invested in the family business and they are quite illiquid.Lacking any reasonable diversification, the founder is uncovered to a serious financial risk. Without a clear exit strategy and a meaningful succession plan, the founder creates a void in the governance and ownership systems which present a great meat for the heirs. The results have also shown that most of the interviewed owners lack time, capacity and knowledge to successfully resolve these issues. Relatively higher scores in the CG area that relates to Supervision and control mechanisms could be explained by an obvious need to professionalize the firm and to alter the management. Most of the businesses are economically healthy and have had a rapid expansion of business that outgrew its respective organizational structure.The owners show the greatest readiness to implement practical supervision CG mechanisms since they expect that these mechanisms would increase effectiveness of their control over the business and the outside managers and thus reduce a burden which they barely handle. However, we have to emphasize that better supervision, although of a great value, cannot taciturnity for unresolved succession issues. Poor management and ownership succession would almost certainly lead to a collapse of the family business in the next generation despite good internal controls, internal audit function or any other form of internal and/or external supervision. Low scores in the CG area that relates to Board indicate that most of the businesses have not separated the supervisory and strategic level on one hand and the operational level on the other.This leads to a common situation that even in rather big family-owned businesses in Serbia that employ more than 1000 employees, we still have so-called one-man show and the key man risk. This risk scatters away investors and leaves these businesses without substantial external funding. It is rather common that many rapidly developing Serbian businesses finance their investments form short-term lending since banks refuse to carry governance risks over an all-encompassing period of time. This lack of good professionals at the helm of their companies, most of the interviewed o wners explain with a lack of qualified managers to whom they could entrust the family business.Finally, the lowest score in transparency area is somewhat expected. As already mentioned, these businesses are not listed and there are no legal rules that would insist on greater transparency for bigger, closed companies. While this is understandable, it also indicates that the Serbian businesses do not see any value in transparency per se which begs further investigation. Our assumption is that in very non-transparent, public and private sectors in Serbia too much of transparency is perceived as an unnecessary exposure to both the government tax authorities and competitors. The businesses are convinced that transparency would only lead to vulnerability without bringing any other value-added.Scorecard results imply that in family businesses in Serbia CG is on a low level, that there is a extensive space for improvements and even quick wins which can significantly contribute to the busin ess operational functioning as well as contribute to its overall performance. The authors will continue to further employ the scorecard and assess the CG level in family businesses as to create a solid basis for scientific conclusions in the area, but as well to see whether improvements through time will be made. LITERATURE Black, B. (2001) The corporate governance behavior and market value of Russian firms. Emerging Markets Review, 2, p. 89108. Black, B. , Jang, H. and Kim, W. (2006) Does corporate governance predict firms market values? Evidence from Korea.journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 22, p. 366413. Bassen, A. (2004) The importance of good corporate governance by institutional investors The Scorecard for German Corporate Governance. International Journal of Disclosure and Governance, 2(3), p. 244-263. Gheung, Y. , Stouraitis, A. and Weiqiang, T. (2010) Does the Quality of Corporate Governance Affect Firm military rating and Risk? Evidence from a Corporate Governan ce Scorecard in Hong Kong. International Review of Finance. 10(4), p. 403-432. Davis P. S. and Harveston P. D. (1998) The Influence of Family on the Family Business Succession bidding A Multi-Generational Perspective, Family Business Review, 22. Goksen, N. and Oktem, O. 2009) Countervailing institutional forces corporate governance in Turkish family business groups. Journal of Management and Governance. 13, p. 193-213. Grassi Jr S. V. and Giarmarco J. H. (2008) Practical Succession Planning for the Family own Business, Journal of Practical Estate Planning, 10(1), p. 27-60. Ibrahim A. and Dumas C. (2001) Strategie decision making in small family flrms an empirical investigation, Journal of small business strategy, 12(l), p. 1-11. International Finance Corporation (2008) IFC Family Business Handbook, Belgrade. Durnev, A. and Kim, E. (2005) To steal or not to steal Firm attributes, legal environment, and valuation. Journal of Finance, 60, p. 461-1493. Gary, U. and Gonzalez, M. (2008) Corporate governance and firm value The case of Venezuela. Corporate Governance An International Review, 16, p. 194209. Khanchel El Mehdi, I. (2007) Empirical evidence on corporate governance and corporate performance in Tunesia. Corporate GovernanceAn International Review, 15, p. 14291441. KPMG Enterprise (2011) Family Business Succession, Managing All-Important Family Component, Canada. Kuratko D. K. and Hodgetts R. M. (2004) Entrepreneurship Theory, Process & Practice, 6th Edition, United States, Thomson Publishing. Network for Family Enterprise (2008) www. fbn-i. org/fbn/main. nsf/doclu/facts.Neubauer Fred and Alden G. Lank (1998) The Family Business its Governance for Sustainability, New York, Routledge. Poutziouris Panikkos Zata, (2001), Venture capital and small and medium-sized family companies an analysis from the demand perspective, Family Business Review, 14(3), p. 277-291. Renders, A. , Gaeremynck, A. and Sercu, P. (2010) Corporate-Governance Ratings and Company Performa nce A Cross-European Study. Corporate Governance An International Review, 18(2), p. 87-106. Strenger, C. (2004) The Corporate Governance Scorecard a tool for the implementation of corporate governance. Corporate Governance An International Review, 12(1), p. 11-15.