Thursday, March 7, 2019
Strayer Cis500 Assignment 1
1. Comp are and contrast the application of culture applied science (IT) to optimize jurisprudence departments surgical process to reduce shame versus random patrols of the streets. In recent years, the idea of figureive policing, or the use of statistics and info to stir policing decisions, has go bad widely popular in the United States. In 1994, the tender York City natural law subdivision take a natural law enforcement offense fighting strategy known as COMPSTAT (Computer Statistics). COMPSTAT uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to social occasion the locations of where offences occur, identify baking hotspots, and map some(prenominal)er studys.COMPSTAT has amassed a wealth of historical nuisance data. Mathematicians have designed and developed algorithms that run a preparest the historical data to predict future crimes for police departments. The purpose of this paper is to briefly examine prognosticative policing and how tools such as COMPSTAT consent to police departments to respond more expeditiously to criminal activity. Using culture engineering to fight crime by the police officers is becoming increasingly effective in apprehending the crime perpetrators. prophetical policing, or programs such as COMPSTAT, involves use data from disparate sources, analyzing them and then victimisation the results to anticipate, prevent and respond more in effect to future crimes. The prophetic spate moves law enforcement from focvictimization on what will happen and how to effectively position resources in front of the crime, thereby changing outcomes, writes Charlie Beck, chief of the Los Angeles Police Department (Predictive Policing The Future of Law Enforcement, NIJ, 2012). From the early 1800s to the 1980s, patrol and criminal investigation predominate policing.Uniformed police patrolled the streets to prevent crime, to interrupt crimes in progress, and to apprehend criminals. However, research since the mid-sixties has shown the limits of both patrol and investigation for controlling crime. Patrol officers did non effectively prevent crime by questioning suspects, victims, and witnesses. In the 1990s, the police adoptedpredictive policing strategiesin which police initiate action instead of waiting for calls. Patrol remains the backbone of police operations. It consumes most of the resources of police agencies.On patrol, a police officer makes regular circuits or passes through a special area. Studies of foot patrol indicate that these patrols are costly and do not reduce crime. Because crime is not evenly distributed throughout a community, which core some places need more patrol than others. The customs of giving individually neighborhood an equal amount of patrol wastes police resource, so the tradition of giving each neighborhood an equal amount of patrol bonnie wastes police resources, however, which give the axe make citizens less fearful of crime and repair citizen attitudes toward the poli ce(CliffsNotes. om. ). While predictive police operations focus on the submergence of crime in certain offenders, places, and victims. Predictive operations include using decoys, going undercover, raiding, relying on informants, stopping and frisking suspects, shadowing repeat offenders, policing repeat-complaint locations, and saturating an area with police to maintain order which can be an effective order to prevent crime(CliffsNotes. com. ). 2. Describe how COMPSTAT, as an information system (IS), implements the four (4) base IS functions 1.Input, 2. Processing, 3. Output, 4. Feedback. COMPSTAT is the name given to the New York City Police Departments account expertness procedure and has since been replicated in many other departments. COMPSTAT is a anxiety philosophy or organizational management tool for police departments, roughly equivalent to sixer Sigmaor TQM, and is not a computer system or software product package. (State of CA, 2010). COMPSTAT as an information syst em implements the four basic IS functions in the pursuit ways InputData gathering process which is the building block of COMPSTAT is comprised of information compiled from soma of sources like police incidents, arrest surveys, suspect debriefing, telephone calls, and field question reports. Pushing the data into the Incident Reporting System will garter to maintain a database for future reference (Willis et al. , 2003). Processing The collection of data is presented during every COMPSTAT meeting. This would be entered into a database using a data management program like MS Access. This task is performed by the Crime abstract Unit (CAU).These analysts classify, categorize, aggregate and analyze the data in order to gain a detailed report including many details like date, location, daylight and other information related to the crime. At this stage they would be up to(p) to identify a targeted response that may be the source of concern. This report provides useful identificatio n of crime patterns like the point of entry for a burglary or make and model of a stolen vehicle (Willis et al. , 2003, Pg 48-50). Further by using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) data and spatial analysis geographic hot spots are located and mapped to the data.Output Once the data is processed, it is presented to the department commanders. With getable intelligence they should devise a strategy and deploy resources with expertise to tactfully pre-empt a crime situation and follow it up to ensure performance and results were as desired. These are key steps or principles which guide the departments patrol and investigative unravel * Accurate and timely intelligence, * Rapid deployment * Effective tactics, and * stark follow-up and assessment (William J. Bratton, 1999 pg-15). Feedback The key element of alterment is feedback.As it includes data, any demerit related to this aspect should be avoided. Consistent and correct data has to be entered into the incident reporting sys tem and database. Accurate report writing should be followed while recording incidents. Extensive data analysis to identify the descent cause of crime becomes mandatory. Regular meetings and brainstorming session should be conducted to improve data collection and teams involved should be evaluated. Learning from past mistakes should never be avoided. Continuous aiming at innovation and integration with latest technology to keep the system up to date can provide let on results.Periodic assessments of performance and gaps in completeing set goals and objectives should be reviewed so that corrective measures can be taken to fill the gaps to meet desired results. 3. Determine how information systems have allowed police departments that implement tools such as COMPSTAT to respond to crime faster. With the implementation of information systems real time access to data has become easier. Identification of hot spots related to crime is possible and problem solving has become proactive in stead of reactive. Monitoring of multiple locations and futurist crime and its patterns can be detected.This allows operations to be carried with fewer resources, and cut back random patrols. Further it provides a platform for administering vast information which enables unwrap decision making and problem solving. By demanding accountability it facilitates team work and police personnel are now working together to accomplish set goals faster thereby reducing crime. 4. Apply the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis (SWOT analysis) on behalf of police departments that intend to implement predictive policing. SWOT Analysis of Predictive Policing SWOT Analysis of Predictive PolicingStrengths The strength of predictive policing is that it allows resources to be utilise more efficiently because they can be deployed to specific locations in which crimes are likely to occur and for specific types of crimes. In this regard, it is also easier to prevent crime from occ urring as opposed to merely responding to it (Goode, 2011). Weaknesses Predictive policing is often treated as being solely related to the use of computers and data to the detriment of involving front-line police officers in the decision-making process.This can result in police officers feeling both disrespected and unimportant in performing police work (Willis, Mastrofski Weisburd, 2003). Opportunities Predictive policing provides for the probability for police departments to reduce criminal activity at a write down cost to taxpayers. Police departments can prevent crime from occurring rather than using limited resources to respond to crimes once they have occurred and hoping responses will deter other criminals (Pearsall, 2010).Threats The primary threat related to predictive policing is that some police officers, peculiarly older police officers, are skeptical of the use of statistics and data in place of traditional street patrols. This could result in predictive policing ef forts not being carried out in a way that will allow them to be as successful as possible. Conclusion The information contained in this brief paper has shown that with the use of information technology and programs such as COMPSTAT, predictive policing can result in a reduction in crime by predicting where it will occur rather than responding to it once it has occurred.However, predictive policing can have problems if the sole focus is on the use of information technology. Instead, police officers and the general public must be included in the process. Their feedback must be solicited as part of the larger process. Otherwise, they have the ability to derail any reductions in crime and improvements in performance that faculty be possible from predictive policing. References 1. Goode, E. (2011, August 15). Sending the police in the lead theres a crime. Retrieved from http//www. nytimes. com/2011/08/us/16police. html 2. Pearsall, B. (2010, May).Predictive policing The future of law e nforcement? National Institute 3. Willis, J. J. , Mastrofski, S. D. , Weisburd, D. (2003). Compstat in recital An in-depth Analysis of three cities. Police Foundation. Retrieved from http//www. policefoundation. org/pdf/compstatinpractice. pdf 4. CliffsNotes. com. Police Strategies. Retrieved April,12th, 2012, from http//www. cliffsnotes. com/study_guide/topicArticleId-10065,articleId-9953. html 5. Bratton, W. J. Malinowski, S. W. (2008). Police performance management in practice Taking COMPSTAT to the next level. Policing, 2(3), 259-265.