Monday, December 17, 2018
'Narrative traits in Indian cinema Essay\r'
'In a nation that produces tumefy-nigh 800 removes a year Indian the striking unwashed travel to trains a a truly important part of their grow. For Indian citizenry Ã¢â¬Å" movie business firm is inbuilt to their lives; it is not a distant, two to trinity hour distraction, solely an explicit life-style for them.Ã¢â¬Â(Jaya Ramanathan). The grandhearted cover version provides an alternative, an escape from the realities of day-to-day life. The protagonists be on the whole identified with, the wedge shape is applauded, the virtuous is faithped and the scoundrel is condemned. The actors and actresses atomic number 18 ho accustomhold names; on that point is no escaping their omnipresence. Through this essay I get prohibited(a) listen to examine what makes Indian movie house Indian. By that I mean what narrative and visual traits ar inbuilt to Indian moving picture and decl atomic number 18 little relevance to motion-picture turn out of America or atomi c number 63.\r\nThe subjects I am deprivation to require at argon the nervous strain and spring routine, how it came to the high-pitchedest degree, what it means and why itÃ¢â¬â¢s so important to Indian picture show. I will look at the treatwork forcet of women and how familiarity of women is re mystifyed in Indian adopt, the importance of the actor within Indian society and will before long look at the use of costumes and flesh out togs apply within the Indian fool away industry. First I will briefly make some traits associated with Ameri john and European movie as to see how these movie house cases differ from that of India.\r\nThe cinema industry in Europe has a naughtyly complex make-up, reflecting the cultural and expressive diversity of psyche nations. If, on the one hand, the quantitative production levels of EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s cinema industry produce remained high (at roughly 600 honest-length features a year, on a par with the United States, However on ly a minority of European titles manage to cross the borders of their countrified of origin. This is one major difference from Indian overhear with it having one of the highest human racely distri entirelyion figures score completely cinemas.\r\nHollywood makes movie theaters for the public, and if the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s tastes change therefore Hollywood enters will overly change. They be beat capital to have their i bonks massaged and their de shapeine reaffirmed. And if Ameri tin cans wonÃ¢â¬â¢t pay money for it, then Hollywood doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exigency to sell it. The narrative of Hollywood trainsÃ¢â¬â¢ is a directly plot, in which nothing is leftover unclear, uncuringtling or undetermined and e very shot is justified by a consort to strictest cause and effect. Hollywood films argon a comfortably deal viewed as dulling the mind. This is far from the case in Indian cinema where the plot is forced with the aim of making lot think more or less what has happene d, this is oft applied to their sustain lives in some delegacy.\r\nIn America mountain gener tout ensembley view films for mere entertainment where as Indian people watch films and use the chaste codes implied within the narrative to erupt their own lives. supererogatory effects, violence, and actorsÃ¢â¬â¢ names be frequently major themes that puzzle Americans to the movies. While most Hollywood films ar do purely for entertainment value, many foreign films ar entertaining as well as forcing the dish think and question their surroundings at the aforementioned(prenominal) time.\r\nIn India, movies ar more than simply entertainment. They are dreams, escape, fantasy and alternative realities Ã¢â¬ a necessity in dealing with the drudge of bothday existence and routine. in particular now that they have the cinematography, playacting, scripting and associated parts down manage a science Ã¢â¬ to the point of stretching the limits of imagination and modifying what Ã¢â¬Å"isÃ¢â¬Â into some other realm altogether. While perhaps wishinging(p) in the area of Western sophistication, this miss is believably the biggest advantage Indian films have over the rilievo of the World. They are simply fun to watch. Indians enjoy seeing people interacting with each other and the films reflect complaisant practices and norms.\r\nThe form of Indian cinema has a great deal to do with how plethoric entertainment has been tradition all in ally perceived and be in India. Ã¢â¬Å"Entertainment is quantified as a combination of the essence of the guild elemental emotions. Complete entertainment is possible only when the nine emotions, make out, hate, joy, sorrow, pity, disgust, fear, anger and com recidivateion, are bl ratiocinationed expertly in different ways around a paramount emotion. The main emotion could be love, joy, hate or compassion, but if not complemented by the others, is neither defined nor experienced.Ã¢â¬Â (V. Damodaran & axeropht hol; M. Unnithan-Kumar)\r\n in that respect are certain traits that are commonly associated with Bollywood movies. These complicate:\r\nÃ¢â¬Å"XExtensive use of other acting arts much(prenominal) as singing and saltation\r\nÃ¢â¬Å"X Treatment/representation of women\r\nÃ¢â¬Å"XThe importance of the doer within society\r\nÃ¢â¬Å"XThemes nitty-grittyd on Moral value and cultural engagements\r\nÃ¢â¬Å"XLarge studio plants with elaborate decoration & adenosine monophosphate; elaborate and brightly coloured costumes\r\nBollywood is a term utilize to describe the Indian film industry, the largest in the world in foothold of film production. In 1990 India produced 800+ films (more than two a day). BollywoodÃ¢â¬â¢s cinema expiration audience, in India, Pakistan and elsewhere is likewise one of the biggest in the world.\r\nSong & antiophthalmic factor; Dance\r\nIndian films are known all over the world, but deal an English or American person and they will probably say Indian fi lms are almost singing and dancing. If you ask someone in the tenderness East they may say Indian films wave around action and if you ask someone elsewhere in Asia they frequently define Indian movies as love stories. So, overall it is probably Westerners who most of all see Indian movies as just strain-and-dance. This is probably partly down to ignorance on our behalf and overly callable to the fact that medicational film has been largely tatterdemalion in Europe and America, or it is defined under(a) its own writing style Ã¢â¬ËmusicalÃ¢â¬â¢ which oft deters people from watching.. thitherfore I feel this is a good place to ch adenosine monophosphateiont in terms of considering what makes Indian film different from American or European film.\r\nThe narrative structure of popular Indian films is punctuated with airs and dances, usually around six stocks. The origins of this tradition can be traced back to the ballets in Indian dance-drama. These stock and dance s are often referred to as filmi music (a desi word) . Song and dance can have many narrative functions within an Indian film. It can be used to visual aspect the emotions and show the real interiority of theatrical roles. These shout and dance sequences are more often than not used as merely musical interludes or rest levels among the dialogues of the film. The music directorÃ¢â¬â¢s main enterprise in the film is to compose attractive melodies set to often fine lyrics of a high literary quality. In early Indian film the heroes and heroines sang their way done the four hour movie. The acting quality and appearance of the address counted for little as it was singing talent that was important. To this day the Indian film poetry has a unique thrill.\r\nThe music director, the metrical compositionbird and the playback singers have an unparalleled status in India. These birdsong and dance sequences have played a very important part in Indian films since their birth, around 1 913, and they have contained some of the outflank Urdu and Hindi rhyme within its lyrics Ã¢â¬ this was especially the case during the 1950Ã¢â¬Â² and 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s period of filmmaking. This era was considered the golden era in this genre with films such as Pakeezah ( white), order by Kamaal Amrohi, Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje, directed by Rajaram Vankudre Shantaram as excellent sheaths of the use of song and dance. The most popular form of music in India still continues to be the film song.\r\nIn the pop off few years, the market for popular music has enceinte massively. Ã¢â¬Å"Today, it is not unusual for films to be designed around a set of songs rather than the other way around. There is an increasing trend to use the narrative of a film simply as a string to hang song and dance numbers, a good deal interchangeable a music hall revue. With the youthfulistic audiovisual technology available, they can often check an extended music video peppered with action and dialogue. Ã¢â¬Â(V. Damodaran & M. Unnithan-Kumar)\r\nIndian cinema has some of the best song and dance sequences in the world cinema and often excels Hollywood musicals through the way in which they link their dialogue and musical lyrics. Examples of this quality can be seen in the work of Guru Dutt in films such as Pyaasa (1957) which he Directed, wrote, produced and also starred in. This film is enkindle because the songs are often inserted in the story itself, (apart from the Guru Dutt-Mala Sinha dyad scene) and are not only musical picturizations of fantasies, dreams, etc., as it is often the case in later Bollywood films. Examples of his song sequences rival the best in world cinema and in many cases excel the Hollywood musical in the subtle linking of dialogue and lyric. These directors transformed the film song into an art form and confirmed that music was Indian cinemaÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest strength. plane today, Indian filmmakers are aware that their instant of cinematic glory can come from the songs. Every decennium since the 1950s, a huge majority of films that would otherwise have been completely forgotten are saved by a marvellous musical sequence in which melody, lyrics, camera movements, choreography and makeance combine to wizard(prenominal) effect.\r\nMore than anything the phenomenon of song and dance gives Indian plastic film its unique identity. Unlike Hollywood, where the Ã¢â¬ËMusicalÃ¢â¬â¢ was a disclose genre by itself, song and dance has been an integral part of the narrative in Indian picture be it in any language or whichever genre often leading and us Westerners often describe them as Indian musicals Ã¢â¬ often not realised by us that around each different genre of Indian film contains song and dance.\r\nFilm songs have been used to express all aspects of Indian life Ã¢â¬ weddings, funerals, state occasions, unearthly festivals, parades, parties or political conventions. Over the years, The Indian film song has evolved and many critics say that it has no reached perfection. Consequently film music is by far the most popular brand of music in India. Film makers have realised the importance of the song and dance in their films. Even today with all the visual aspects of the Indian films such as costume and sets, the song is often the single factor that determines the success or harm of a film in India.\r\nStars of Indian films are often seen as heroes and are idolised. Nasreen Munni Kabir tells us how Ã¢â¬Å"people want to act, communion and look like their idols. In every decade, barbers have been asked to give their clients an Ashok Kumar, or Dilip Kumar or Shah Rukh Khan cut and tailors have incessantly been told to transcript the clothes of the beautiful Madhubala or Aishwarya RaiÃ¢â¬Â. Until the early 90s, star gossip was almost exclusively reported in the dozens of film magazines but now busy in the world of cinema is so immense that virtually every daily newspaper devotes everlasting prin t station to who is doing what in Bollywood.\r\nRepresentation of Women & Sexuality\r\nIn early Indian cinema codes of practise followed by performing arts were also applied to the film industry. One Ã¢â¬ËruleÃ¢â¬â¢ was that women of high reputation discouraged from working on screen as it was considered unacceptable by society for women to perform to perform in front of men whom were come up strangers. As a result of this rule men played the roles of women. Nasreen Munni Kabir2, in his book Bollywood: The Indian cinema story, discusses how women were only gradually accepted in theatre but soon later(prenominal) the production of films in India women became increasing voluntary to act on screen, so far Muslim or Hindu actresses were often frowned upon and thought to have not come from good families. This was not the case for Jewish or Christian actresses; these were seen as organism above this lineament of criticism because of their religion.\r\n agree to the Manusmr iti, an ancient classical work dealing with laws, ethics, and morality, a woman should be subject to her father in childhood, in youth to her husband, and when her husband is dead, to her children. Within the guidelines of the Manusmriti, women do not enjoy independence. Women are supposed to puzzle to the role of a happy figure that takes heraldic bearing of the household. They are supposed to be obedient to their husbands and go to every length to honour them even after death. These ethics were transferred to film and the role of the woman in Indian films is often one of extreme verity towards her father, husband and children. The fe manly character is often a centrepiece to a narrative with other, predominantly male characters working around her.\r\nIn traditionalisticistic Indian Society, there are certain prescribed roles which specify the conduct of women. For example, the conception of the woman as Sita is prevalent in Indian society and film. Sita is a character in the Ramayana, one of the great epics, which embodies values and the differences amidst right and wrong. She is the wife of Rama, who is translator of many virtues including honor, courage, and loyalty. practically of Indian popular cinema is influenced by the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, another epic, which involves the hero Lord Krishna. Sita is the desirel woman and wife that sees her husband as an idol. Indian popular cinema represents this role of the ideal wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s astonishment and unfaltering respect.\r\nIn a great deal of popular Indian Cinema the role of the women can be separated into four categories. The four categories to consider include the ideal wife, ideal dumbfound, the vamp, and the fancy man (Dissanayake 77).\r\nThe elevated Wife (often Heroine)\r\nThis character is represented by inner purity and fidelity. The wife mustiness be ordered with traditional Indian roles by honouring the family and depending on the husband. The definintion of the heroine i n early Indian films was closely linked with mythical charaters. Nasreen Munni Kabir uses the virtous Sati Savitri as the perfect model of the women. Savitri is famous in mythology for bringing back her husband from the clutches of Yam, the immortal of death through her endless devotion to him. From that moment on all portrayals of women in cinema were deliberate against Savitri.\r\nHeriones were almost always seen as virtuous, weepy, helpless characters whose resole existence relied upon the presence of a man in her life Ã¢â¬ husband, brother or father. If the heroine were not matrimonial then it was assumed that she was a virgin. The basic idea in all Indian films from 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s to the present day is that the heroine will finally get her man. ranee Mukerji states Ã¢â¬Å"The ultimate goal of the heroine is to get her man in the endÃ¢â¬Â¦This may not be dual-lane by the hero. Whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s a comedy, a wild-eyed film, an action film, a horror film Ã¢â¬ you always have romance winning in the endÃ¢â¬Â.\r\nThe Ideal Mother\r\nIndian reference to the niggle involves religious suggestion. The country is connected with the mother goddess, Shakti, who represents great strength. The role of the mother in Indian film is often seen as a strong force, such as in Mother India. This film showcased the Indian Woman completely with her strength and emotions. (1957). Radha (Nargis) is a mother, who is left to look after her sons after her husband leaves out of shame of not macrocosm able to withstand for his family, due to an accident. Radha throughout the film faces many struggles, elevator three boys, fighting p undefendabley and debt, as well as other tragedy in the family. She is a representation of the mother being strong and the spinal column of any family. Mehboob KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s Mother India is in truth a great tribute to an Indian woman.\r\nThe flirting\r\nThe vamp in Indian film is modern and imitates western women and is usually more of a n equal spouse to the man than the heroine. Her stereotypical behaviour can include smoking, drinking, and dancing. She represents unacceptable behaviour and is seen as unwholesome and is almost always punished for her behaviour. Indian films are representative of Indian societyÃ¢â¬Â¦from fuck offning to end it is full of valuesÃ¢â¬Â¦The character of the vamp is used to pass judgement on sections of society that are not acceptable to the traditional midriff classÃ¢â¬Â¦The middle class always pats itself on the back when it see Ã¢â¬Ëthe vampÃ¢â¬â¢: Ã¢â¬ËOh see, sheÃ¢â¬â¢s smoking and drinking and sheÃ¢â¬â¢s wearing those skimpy clothes. My daughter in doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t, mother doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t etc.Ã¢â¬Â( Archana Puran Singh) These images help the middle classes reaffirm their faith in their own values. An example of this type of woman is the character of Chandramukhi, a prositue in the film Devdas (P.C. Barua) whom gets in love with Devdas (hero) however, he loves Paro. There is one film that goes against moral convention in Indian cinema, with the hero choosing to fall in love and end up with the vamp Ã¢â¬ Guru Dutts Pyassa.\r\nThe Courtesan\r\nThe concubine is outside the normal realm of Indian cleaning woman she is a type of dancing girl. She embodies versed practice. She is a character who helps with the physical and emotional needs of men. Often in Indian film, she gives the man comfort and care, after which, he leaves her to desperately mourn the loss of him. Archana Puran Singh explains the difference betwixt the vamp and the fancy man Ã¢â¬Å"The difference is that the vamp has choices. The courtesan is someone who had no choice in being a courtesan. Ã¢â¬Â¦there is always said to be a sad story behind her.Ã¢â¬Â Indians are therefore sympathetic towards this character whereas the vamp is frowned upon. Ã¢â¬Å"If the courtesan is performing a dance itÃ¢â¬â¢s not out of choice and amazingly very often the courtesan remains a virgin with purity of mind and bodyÃ¢â¬Â. The hero is attracted to her because she represents a command aspect of sexuality, one not shown in the heroine, but shown often too much in the vamp. The hero can watch her and she often will fall in love with him Ã¢â¬ often causing mental confusion in communication causing what is often envisioned in Indian cinema Ã¢â¬ The love triangle.\r\nAlthough Indian cinema continues to change and evolve, reflecting new trends in sexuality relations, at least in very traditional Indian cinema women who live by these traditional norms are portrayed as happy and ethical. Women who go against these rules of narrative and culture in film are punished and seen as immoral.\r\nIndian films never show scenes of a sexual nature; even touch was unknown in Indian film for a long time, however, this is not to say that Indian films lack passion and desire. The women in Indian films are often the focus of male desire. Public displays of affection are associated with western life and tend to be omitted from Indian film. Although more recent films often include scenes of overt sexual relations, traditionally Indian film has used three techniques to convey this sexuality as reason by Richards as tribal dress, dream sequences/ besotted saris, and behind the bush.\r\nTribal Dress\r\nBecause many Indian films involve music and dance, Richards explains, Ã¢â¬Å"tribal costumes are used for the picture of vast expanses of the body, in particular the pelvic regionÃ¢â¬Â ( Dissanayake ).\r\nDream Sequences/Wet Sari\r\nDreams assign the ability to express sexual desires and explore interdict pleasure. Wet saris are often involved in these dreams and are caused by a downpour in which the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s flimsy sari allows for exposure of the female body. Dance director Lollipop, known for choreographing the song Ã¢â¬ËAati Kya khandalaÃ¢â¬â¢ in the film Ghulum (Vikram Bhatt, 1998) notes that Ã¢â¬Å"the wet sari must not only have the heroine wea ring a sari but the hero wearing a cap so that the rain falls in front of his eyesÃ¢â¬Â this is a sequence that has receive a audience expectation.\r\nPsychotherapist Udayan Patel has his own views on this wet sari dance. Ã¢â¬Å"The gyrations are repeated and the use of the eyes and lips, all suggest overt sexuality. In our culture, we are split between living through private imaginations and mixer behaviour. .. . There is no kiss, there is no sex. If its explicit they people cant ignore it and parents will say itÃ¢â¬â¢s a sturdy film. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think producers want this as they would lose big audiences. So sexuality is expressed through dance and the movement you of sexual intercourse without touching or kissing.Ã¢â¬Â\r\nBehind the provide\r\nThe music and dance in films often gives characters the opportunity to run behind the bushes quickly. Afterwards the woman wipes off her lips, insinuating what occurred.\r\nImportance of actor within society\r\nThere are high levels of devotion and hero worship towards leading stars of Indian cinema. People want to act, talk and look like their idols. In every decade, barbers have been asked to give their clients an Ashok Kumar or Dilip Kumar or Shah Rukh Khan cut off and tailors have always been told to copy the clothes of the beautiful Madhubala or Aishwarya Rai. Until the early 90s, star gossip was almost exclusively reported in the dozens of film magazines but now interest in the world of cinema is so extensive that virtually every daily newspaper devotes endless print space to whom is doing what in Bollywood.\r\nIt is not only in terms of magazines and haircuts that these people are followed, it has been known for highly acclaimed actors or actresses to become members of government, as it is believed that because people follow them on screen and idolise them then this will be the case in government where they can actively change the lives of their fans and society in general. One example of this oc currence is with Shabana Azmi. Shabana is an internationally acclaimed actress, Member of the Indian Parliament, and UN saving grace Ambassador. She is the winner of an unprecedented five National Awards for outflank Actress in India for the films Ankur (1974), Arth (1983), Khandhar (1984), Paar (1985), and Godmother (1999).\r\nShe is also an extremely vocal and move social activist, for which she was presented the Rajiv Gandhi Award as well as the Yash Bhartiya award from the government of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Most significantly she was awarded the Padma Shri in 1988 by the Government of India, an award minded(p) to eminent citizens for excellence in their field and autocratic contribution to society. She describes why she was driven into politics after movie making. Ã¢â¬Å"What ultimately drove me towards politics was this substantive contradiction: if the whole purpose of art is to modify people, how can you say that this sensitivity is only going to be dire cted towards yourself and giving a better performance? This is simply not possible since the best resources of an actor must come from life itself. So when you are in films playing characters struggling with social injustice and exploitation, then a time comes when you can no longer treat your work like a nine-to-five job. I could not think that as of 6:00pm everyday, I would no longer absorb myself with the lives of the people I choose to play. This turn came about some time in the early-80sÃ¢â¬Â (Shabana Azmi)\r\nMoral set & Cultural struggles\r\nIndian movies usually centre around moral values and binary oppositions such as unconditional love, the conflict between fathers and sons, revenge, redemption, the hero, the villain, choice against the odds, the importance of honour and self-respect, and the mission to uphold religious and moral values Ã¢â¬ grand themes that Hollywood in general leaves to the now rarely produced epic.\r\nThe characterizations in Indian films ar e often based on archetypes of good and evil. here are some examples of this binary opposition in Indian film:\r\nGOODEVIL\r\nHeroineVamp\r\nHeroVillain\r\nIndian societyWesternisation\r\nMoneyPoverty\r\nLove solitariness\r\nEver Indian film shows a struggle between at least one set of these oppositions above. Independence films had tended to deal with the confrontation of Western culture with Indian tradition. Westernization was seen as an aspect of colonialism. Western values were considered inimical and threatening to Indian familial social tradition. Villains tended to wear western clothes; westernized women were seen as vamps. In the hero versus villain situation, it was always the villain who was westernized and therefore, change and perverse. The Indian tradition was seen as being liberating and also the sole repository of moral and social values.\r\nCostumes & Setting\r\nOther key contributors to Indian film are the set and costume designs. There is a huge demand for exciting, colourful action scenes as this has great appeal for the young male audience. This is also how the handful of set and costume designers work. In the Bollywood movie, set design can range from the rickety and make-shift to the elaborate and lavish. Costume design has always been important but never as much as in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s culture of glamour and beauty. Bollywood designers have become so trendy that many create clothes for exclusive weddings of the ultra rich as a side line.\r\nThe unique style of Indian cinema is explored through an analysis of the mis-en-scene of the film itselfÃ¢â¬the locations, the sets and costumesÃ¢â¬and shows how they, along with the song and dance sequences, construct the Ã¢â¬ËlookÃ¢â¬â¢ and core of a film. Use of hairstyles and make-up is examined in the place setting of representations of the body in order to explore ever-changing ideas of beauty and sexuality within the film genre.\r\n close\r\nFrom this essay I can conclude that Indi an film is very different from that of American or European films in many ways. Some of these being:\r\n*Indian cinema is more socially thought-provoking than American cinema\r\n*Indian film delivers messages about how Indian people should live their lives\r\n*Indian cinema treats women as objects inferior to men\r\n*Women are assort either good or bad ( heroine or tramp)\r\n*Indian cinema always has romance\r\n*Indian cinema does not use spectactular specil effects\r\n*Indian cinema does not include any sexual relations\r\n*Indian cinema focuses around song and dance\r\nEventually, Americans and British alike can begin to appreciate a more intellectual type of film such as the films popular in India. We need to learn to be willing to dissipate our minds to new possibilities and new ideas. Once we are willing to think for ourselves occasionally, Hollywood can stand out as the film capitol it supposedly is\r\nWhile Indian cinema is unique to Indian culture and history, its spirit ed style, the emotional appeal of its themes, the glamorous lifestyles portrayed, the enduring melodies and tumultuous settings, all contribute to its increasing popularity worldwide.\r\n'